History of Science

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scrmbldggs
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Re: History of Science

Post by scrmbldggs » Fri Nov 02, 2018 10:18 am

Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Fri Nov 02, 2018 10:13 am
Matthew Ellard wrote:
Thu Nov 01, 2018 2:09 am

Poor little NAZI has to post on a USA based forum in English.......as his own German people can't stand him. I imagine him marching up and down German streets on his own. :D
Aha! I KNEW I recognized the style:


. :lol:
.
Lard, save me from your followers.

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Thu Nov 08, 2018 4:31 am

History of Science #27: Electricity.



Barely shocking.

Surprisingly, no mention of elephants.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
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Re: History of Science

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Thu Nov 08, 2018 1:22 pm

Thanks, Gord. I really enjoy these vignettes. But let me begin by praising your new avatar!

Now, regarding the history, as I’ve commented above, the nature of the medium forces a fairly high cutoff for the mention of names. Electromagnetic induction, for example, was discovered by Joseph Henry (17 December 1797--13 May 1878), a physicist and professor at Princeton after 1832, who made the discovery in 1831, almost simultaneously with Faraday (22 September 1791--25 August 1867). Faraday, of course, had the advantage of communicating what he had discovered to the transcendent genius James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831--5 November 1879), and as a result, Faraday's law that a changing magnetic field creates an electric field became one of the four famous Maxwell laws. In honor of Henry's work, the unit of electrical inductance is named the henry.

One must stop at some point, but I do hope this topic will be revisited, as Maxwell’s laws, combined with the Lorentz law for the force on a charge moving in a magnetic field, was the inspiration for the special theory of relativity. Maxwell’s great achievement was to bring Newtonian mechanics and electrical/magnetic phenomena together. (He actually had a mechanical model of electric and magnetic fields, and it was on that basis that he computed the velocity required for a combined pair of electric and magnetic waves to propagate itself. That was in 1861. Bernhard Riemann (1826—1866) had published a paper a few years earlier with much the same result. The problem, given the Lorentz law, was that two observers in relative motion at constant velocity would agree about the force on a moving particle (that agreement is a consequence of Newton’s laws of motion), and they would agree about the strength of the magnetic field, but, given that the magnetic force was proportional to the velocity of the moving particle, they would disagree about the electric field. That asymmetry set Einstein thinking, and…..

Here are a couple of verdicts on Edison.

First, in the Washington, Iowa Evening Journal, December 28, 1932:
George S. Holmes wrote:
He captured light and caged it in a glass,
Then harnessed it forever to a wire;
He gave men robots with no back to tire
In bearing burdens for the toiling mass.

He freed the tongue in wood and wax and brass,
Imbued dull images with motion’s fire,
Transmuted metal into human choir.
These man-made miracles he brought to pass.

Bulbs banish night along the Great White Way.
Thin threads of copper throb with might unseen.
On silver curtains shadow-actors play,
That walk and talk from magic-mouthed machine,
While continents converse through skies o’erhead.
And yet fools say that Edison is dead!
Second, an opposing view:
H.L. Mencken wrote: Edison's life-work, like his garrulous and nonsensical talk, has been mainly a curse to humanity: he has greatly augmented its stock of damned nuisances.
One final point. Except for Faraday, who was no mathematician but had a prodigious geometric imagination, most of the European physicists were good mathematicians. Ampère even tried to provide a proof that every continuous function has a derivative. (Well, continuity didn't have an agree-upon definition at that point, so he can be forgiven for providing what looks now like a fallacious argument. Weierstrass later gave a nice example of a continuous function that does not have a derivative at any point whatever.) The Americans really weren't much in that area.
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin (“Molotov”)

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Re: History of Science

Post by landrew » Thu Nov 08, 2018 7:09 pm

I'm a bit of a "real history" buff (whatever that is).
I tend to agree with Henry Ford that "history is bunk" or whatever he actually said.
We tend to get the spin instead of the real scoop for what actually may have been the actual history. Sometimes we just have to scrape together whatever's available and give it our best guess.
Thomas Edison may have done a lot to advance technology in his time, but he was also a competitive bastard and took a lot of credit for the work of others. Tesla was a decent chap, who practically invented the electrical age, but he had most of the rewards stolen away by people who tended to get their spin into the history books, and whom we often regard as great heroes of history.
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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Thu Nov 08, 2018 9:47 pm

Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 1:22 pm
Thanks, Gord. I really enjoy these vignettes. But let me begin by praising your new avatar!
Which one? I'm still in transition mode and can't decide which avatar to use.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
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Re: History of Science

Post by landrew » Thu Nov 08, 2018 10:23 pm

Gord wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 9:47 pm
Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 1:22 pm
Thanks, Gord. I really enjoy these vignettes. But let me begin by praising your new avatar!
Which one? I'm still in transition mode and can't decide which avatar to use.
No need to thank me for finding it.
The job of a skeptic is to investigate the unexplained; not to explain the uninvestigated.

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Thu Nov 08, 2018 11:43 pm

landrew wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 10:23 pm
Gord wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 9:47 pm
Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Thu Nov 08, 2018 1:22 pm
Thanks, Gord. I really enjoy these vignettes. But let me begin by praising your new avatar!
Which one? I'm still in transition mode and can't decide which avatar to use.
No need to thank me for finding it.
How hard could it be? It's right there in the corner of my post.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Wed Nov 14, 2018 1:30 am

"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Gord
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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Tue Nov 27, 2018 8:54 am

History of Science #29: Cinema, Radio, and Television



There's an elephant, buuuuuuut it dies.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Tue Dec 04, 2018 2:11 am

History of Science #30: The Mind/Brain

"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:34 am

Great, youtube has stopped showing me when new videos in this series are posted.

This one is a week old now.

"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Mon Dec 31, 2018 8:40 pm

Is there a place where one can purchase this whole series? It's a bit uneven as to quality, but every episode has some fascinating aspects.
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin (“Molotov”)

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Mon Dec 31, 2018 10:38 pm

I'm sure there's a way to download them from youtube. I doubt they sell them though.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Tue Jan 08, 2019 7:17 am

History of Science #32: Einstein's Revolution.

"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Sun Jan 13, 2019 10:23 pm

Nice stuff. Lots of pretty details perforce left out. Ever since variational methods were introduced in the eighteenth century, the old Newtonian approach to mechanics has had a powerful rival, championed by Euler and Lagrange. In his 1744 book on the Calculus of Variations, Euler proved a dazzling result: A particle moving according to Newton's laws and confined to a surface, but having no tangential acceleration along that surface (that is, the force acting on it is always perpendicular to the surface) will move along a geodesic of that surface at a uniform linear speed. That's the germ of the idea that Einstein hoped would improve the celestial mechanics of planetary motion. In first approximation, using the two-body model of a fixed sun and an orbiting planet, Einstein believed (and turned out to be right) that if you impose just the right metric on space-time, taking the simplest one that is close to the flat-space metric of special relativity but not itself completely flat, you could get a better description of the motion of the planet than you get from Newtonian principles alone. That metric, he decided should be defined as the vanishing of the Ricci tensor. (He believed this because that tensor is essentially the only one you can construct using at most second derivatives of the metric coefficients and which can vanish without forcing the metric to be flat.) I think he always planned to apply that to the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury. And he was absolutely right: his metric explains that precession with amazing precision.

It's interesting that in 1911, he was urging the astronomers to measure the deflection of light around the sun during an eclipse, because he thought the existence of such deflection would tell in favor of relativity over Newtonian mechanics. He was apparently unaware that a whole century earlier, the astronomer Soldner had computed that there would be such a deflection on the basis of Newtonian mechanics, and had computed exactly the same deflection that Einstein expected in 1911. Fortunately, the test wasn't made until 1919, by which time Einstein had revised his computations to arrive at a deflection twice as large. That's the one which, in a rather helter-skelter manner, was confirmed in 1919, by two expeditions, one of which was headed up by Arthur Eddington. (Both expeditions had appallingly bad conditions for observation, and the raw data had to be massaged considerably in order to confirm Einstein's numbers. There was some controversy, as some were hard-hearted enough to suggest that Eddington had been Einstein's man. Eddington was known to be a champion of healing the breach between Britain and Germany due to the war. Fortunately, later observations have continued to confirm this result.)
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin (“Molotov”)

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Tue Jan 15, 2019 2:48 am

Next episode!

History of Science #33: The Atomic Bomb.

It's da Bomb!



The 2014 accident in New Mexico really was traced back to the use of the wrong kitty litter: https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way ... e-accident
...Cat litter has been used for years to dispose of nuclear waste. Dump it into a drum of sludge and it will stabilize volatile radioactive chemicals. The litter prevents it from reacting with the environment.

And this is what contractors at Los Alamos National Laboratory were doing as they packed Cold War-era waste for shipment to the dump. But at some point, they decided to make a switch, from clay to organic.

"Now that might sound nice, you're trying to be green and all that, but the organic kitty litters are organic," says Conca. Organic litter is made of plant material, which is full of chemical compounds that can react with the nuclear waste.

"They actually are just fuel, and so they're the wrong thing to add," he says. Investigators now believe the litter and waste caused the drum to slowly heat up "sort of like a slow burn charcoal briquette instead of an actual bomb."...
They had to collect the other barrels that had been packed with the same organic kitty litter and seal them inside larger containers.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Sun Mar 31, 2019 9:48 am

Dammit, youtube! There are now 44 of these things, and I haven't been getting my notifications when the new ones have been put up online!

Well, here's #34: Biomedicine



I'll try to post the rest one per day until I've caught up.
"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?

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Re: History of Science

Post by Austin Harper » Tue Apr 02, 2019 2:17 pm

I've starting tracking my YouTube series via RSS because YouTube keeps forgetting to tell me about them.
Dum ratio nos ducet, valebimus et multa bene geremus.

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Re: History of Science

Post by Gord » Wed Apr 03, 2019 6:54 am

#35: Genetics and The Modern Synthesis

"Knowledge grows through infinite timelessness" -- the random fictional Deepak Chopra quote site
"Imagine an ennobling of what could be" -- the New Age BS Generator site
"You are also taking my words out of context." -- Justin
"Nullius in verba" -- The Royal Society ["take nobody's word for it"]
#ANDAMOVIE
Is Trump in jail yet?