1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands."

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Fri Sep 21, 2018 5:57 pm

Oh, wait you said:

Statistical Mechanic wrote:I met a Polish man - a well respected and accomplished gentleman, highly educated, keenly intelligent -

None of that describes Fritz, never mind.
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by scrmbldggs » Fri Sep 21, 2018 6:00 pm

>> I don't care

Aw, but maybe, just to soothe the sore member, those nitwits really should have brought the press and their state of the art equipment to the gassing.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by montgomery » Fri Sep 21, 2018 6:02 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:Jeffk, I met a Polish man - a well respected and accomplished gentleman, highly educated, keenly intelligent - and he told me that the Jews declared war on Germany and would have annihilated the Germans had not something been done. I really have to go with what this man told me.
It's an interesting concept! And it stands as one of your more credible posts, due to it not being spam and personal attacks on others.

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Darren Wilshak » Fri Sep 21, 2018 6:13 pm

If he was a self-righteous lecturing party called Been There, I have a bridge in Arizona for sale...
"We are still waiting for anyone to rebut the main theme of the article that the decode in question and the numbers it quoted perfectly match those in the Korherr report.

Until such a rebuttal comes to light and goes through peer review the article stands the test of time. And after 10 years since the article was published both Peter (Witte) and I have moved on to other research projects. "

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Fri Oct 05, 2018 3:13 pm

The notion that "the Jews started it" with the boycott movement has always struck me as one of the sillier bits of flimflammery purveyed by deniers. Many of the obvious absurdities connected with the boycott have been discussed in this thread.

Another angle is to look at people's expectations at the time of Hitler's appointment as chancellor, specifically how a Nazi headed government was seen for German Jews. Viktor Klemperer's diary makes clear that he viewed Hitler's accession as a threat to German Jews and an augury of dark times to come. I came across a small incident that shows the way in which Hitler's chancellorship was already in 1933 understood as a dividing line for Jews.

It emerges from the memoirs of Melita Mischmann that she recalls what happened to two of her friends, Marianne and Rele Schweitzer, right after Hitler came into office. Marianne and Rele, daughters of a physician, had grown up Protestant in Berlin. The Jewish background of their father, before the Nazi seizure of power, had never been thought to be significant and the two girls had been left unaware of it. With Hitler in office, their father called the girls into his office and explained the family's history and its new relevance. Melita would become estranged from her friends as they were progressively pushed out of the society in which they'd grown up.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Nessie » Fri Oct 05, 2018 7:47 pm

It is almost as if the US Jews who backed a boycott, were the leaders of all world Jews, had the power to declare war and were picking a fight with the Nazis just out of the blue.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Fri Oct 05, 2018 9:25 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Fri Oct 05, 2018 3:13 pm
The notion that "the Jews started it" with the boycott movement has always struck me as one of the sillier bits of flimflammery purveyed by deniers. Many of the obvious absurdities connected with the boycott have been discussed in this thread.

Another angle is to look at people's expectations at the time of Hitler's appointment as chancellor, specifically how a Nazi headed government was seen for German Jews. Viktor Klemperer's diary makes clear that he viewed Hitler's accession as a threat to German Jews and an augury of dark times to come. I came across a small incident that shows the way in which Hitler's chancellorship was already in 1933 understood as a dividing line for Jews.

It emerges from the memoirs of Melita Mischmann that she recalls what happened to two of her friends, Marianne and Rele Schweitzer, right after Hitler came into office. Marianne and Rele, daughters of a physician, had grown up Protestant in Berlin. The Jewish background of their father, before the Nazi seizure of power, had never been thought to be significant and the two girls had been left unaware of it. With Hitler in office, their father called the girls into his office and explained the family's history and its new relevance. Melita would become estranged from her friends as they were progressively pushed out of the society in which they'd grown up.
Having just read the first part of Goldhagen's book, I'm much more aware now than earlier of the absolute pervasiveness of antisemitism in the German population. So much so that even strenuous opposition to the Nazi party seems to be compatible with a willingness to share its eliminationist program. Goldhagen quotes Mischmann's diary as one of many examples illustrating this principle.

Many Jews realized very early in 1933 that they needed to get out right away. Prominent among them, of course, was Einstein, who first went to Amsterdam, and then ultimately to Princeton. Another was my adviser Salomon Bochner, who left in 1933, went to Britain briefly, then came to Princeton, where he was of course in very good company. (I imagine at that time that staff meetings at the Institute for Advanced Study and probably in the Mathematics and Physics Departments could have been conducted in German!) Bochner was a student of Erhard Schmidt, who (so I'm told by a fellow Bochner student) was not a Nazi. But I have never heard that he protested against the Nazis either. I don't know what his position was.
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Fri Oct 05, 2018 9:38 pm

Followup on the above: At the MacTutor website, I found the following information about Schmidt during the Nazi period.
MacTutor wrote:The 1930s were difficult years for Schmidt. With the Nazi rise to power in 1933 life became increasingly difficult for Schmidt's Jewish colleagues and Schur, von Mises and several others were forced out of their posts. In 1951 a meeting was held in Berlin to celebrate Schmidt's 75th birthday. Hans Freudenthal, himself a Jew who had survived the Nazi years, spoke of Schmidt's difficulties through the 1930s:
Hans Freudenthal wrote:It is so easy to practise the honesty that mathematics demands in mathematics itself. If you don't, you will be punished quickly and bitterly. It is so much more difficult to stick to this virtue, proven with numbers and figures, against humans and friends. That we outside, excluded for years from a hostile Germany, know this, and never doubted on you, this is evident from the large number of contributions from abroad that have reached the editors of the Festschrift.
In his reply to Freudenthal's address Schmidt spoke of his love of the University of Berlin:
Erhard Schmidt wrote:I simply loved my students. And exactly the same is true of the university as a whole. I love the University of Berlin, whether it happens to be in happy conditions or not - this does not change anything. I have loved it from the time I have been in Berlin and I will remain faithful to it.
In 1936, when the problems were very difficult, Schmidt was made head of the German delegation to the International Congress of Mathematicians at Oslo. Schmidt held positions of authority at the University of Berlin through these difficult years of Nazi rule. He had to carry through the resolutions against Jews but one of Bieberbach's assistants reported in 1938:

I think that Schmidt does not at all understand the Jewish question.

I'm not sure what to make of that. To say that "the problems were very difficult" is an inexcusable whitewash. Schmidt did NOT have to "carry through the resolutions against Jews." He could have resigned; he could have refused. And it was Schmidt who hired the rabid antisemite Bieberbach in 1921. I don't suppose he can be blamed for that, since (if Goldhagen is correct, and I think he is) any German he hired would have been antisemitic, and it would not have been an issue at that time. But there is far too much willingness to give a pass to people who were "caught in the system." The fact that one of Bieberbach's assistants thought Schmidt was soft on Jews is hardly high praise or even exculpatory. I need more information as to why Freudenthal and other Jewish mathematicians thought Schmidt was one of their friends. Meanwhile, it strikes me as unethical to make love of one's university the highest value, as Schmidt implies he did.
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin (“Molotov”)

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Fri Oct 05, 2018 11:32 pm

Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Fri Oct 05, 2018 9:25 pm
Having just read the first part of Goldhagen's book, I'm much more aware now than earlier of the absolute pervasiveness of antisemitism in the German population. So much so that even strenuous opposition to the Nazi party seems to be compatible with a willingness to share its eliminationist program. Goldhagen quotes Mischmann's diary as one of many examples illustrating this principle.
Hi, Upton.

I want to let you finish with Goldhagen’s book before commenting too much. But while I agree that antisemitism was a part of German society it wasn’t anymore or any less pervasive than in other European countries. Goldhagen overemphasizes the German aspect of it while ignoring that it was also very pervasive in places like France, Poland, Romania, etc. In fact violence towards Jews was historically much more prevalent in Russia than it ever was in Germany.

It’s been some time since I read Goldhagen’s book, I own it (or did) but it’s been 3-4 years since I looked at it. When you finish open a thread on it. I’ll see if I can track my copy down but the library also has a digital copy I can borrow.

The 1933 boycott organized by the Nazi government wound up being a failure and actually an embarrassment. Germans really didn’t go along with it for a variety of reasons.

I will suggest you track down a copy of “Ordinary Men.” There is a revised edition that is worth reading.
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sat Oct 06, 2018 12:20 am

LOL I started a post like this today - addressing "if Goldhagen is correct, and I think he is" - but trashed it for the reason you gave: to let Upton finish with Goldhagen and read perhaps Browning and Friedlander. I'd go so far as to say that before the Third Reich other European countries than Germany seem to have had more popular anti-Semitism.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 12:38 am

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 12:20 am
LOL I started a post like this today - addressing "if Goldhagen is correct, and I think he is" - but trashed it for the reason you gave: to let Upton finish with Goldhagen and read perhaps Browning and Friedlander. I'd go so far as to say that before the Third Reich other European countries than Germany seem to have had more popular anti-Semitism.
Another good book (I think you said you haven’t read it yet) is “Why the Germans? Why the Jews?” by Gotz Aly.
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:03 am

Yeah, it sits on my "books to read" stack. Another angle at this would be studies of Wehrmacht soldiers and attitudes they brought into combat. Neitzel & Welzer, Soldaten, comes to mind.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:23 am

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:03 am
Yeah, it sits on my "books to read" stack. Another angle at this would be studies of Wehrmacht soldiers and attitudes they brought into combat. Neitzel & Welzer, Soldaten, comes to mind.
I think we need to extend that to not only what they thought about Jews but what they thought about Poles, Soviet citizen...

Why, look at us, analyzing history!!!!!

Damnit I need to post something from Carlos Porter to lighten the mood!!!

LOL
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
viewtopic.php?f=39&t=31585&p=713843#p713843

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Balmoral95 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:28 am

Jeffk 1970 wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:23 am
Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:03 am
Yeah, it sits on my "books to read" stack. Another angle at this would be studies of Wehrmacht soldiers and attitudes they brought into combat. Neitzel & Welzer, Soldaten, comes to mind.
I think we need to extend that to not only what they thought about Jews but what they thought about Poles, Soviet citizen...

Why, look at us, analyzing history!!!!!

Damnit I need to post something from Carlos Porter to lighten the mood!!!

LOL

Might be interesting to have a serious look into German experience in WWI Russia....

I'm ignoring the Porter remark :mrgreen:

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:31 am

perhaps a new thread on this, to keep this thread focused on the boycott?
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Balmoral95 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:41 am

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:31 am
perhaps a new thread on this, to keep this thread focused on the boycott?
Sounds good...

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:44 am

Balmoral95 wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:28 am
Jeffk 1970 wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:23 am
Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:03 am
Yeah, it sits on my "books to read" stack. Another angle at this would be studies of Wehrmacht soldiers and attitudes they brought into combat. Neitzel & Welzer, Soldaten, comes to mind.
I think we need to extend that to not only what they thought about Jews but what they thought about Poles, Soviet citizen...

Why, look at us, analyzing history!!!!!

Damnit I need to post something from Carlos Porter to lighten the mood!!!

LOL

Might be interesting to have a serious look into German experience in WWI Russia....

I'm ignoring the Porter remark :mrgreen:
That’s probably for the best.

Been a bit since I looked into WW I, got some books on it that I can drag out.
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
viewtopic.php?f=39&t=31585&p=713843#p713843

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:45 am

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Sat Oct 06, 2018 1:31 am
perhaps a new thread on this, to keep this thread focused on the boycott?
That’ll work. I’ll see what I can pull out of my stack of stuff.
Question for Groening by a reporter:
“Mr. Groening, what do you say to those who still deny the Holocaust?”

Groening:
“Nothing. They are hopelessly lost.”


Hhhhhhhmmmmmm, is it possible that Carlo Mattogno is the greatest scholar the world has ever known?
:lol: :lol:
viewtopic.php?f=39&t=31585&p=713843#p713843

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Upton_O_Goode » Sat Oct 06, 2018 10:54 am

Jeffk 1970 wrote:
Fri Oct 05, 2018 11:32 pm
Upton_O_Goode wrote:
Fri Oct 05, 2018 9:25 pm
Having just read the first part of Goldhagen's book, I'm much more aware now than earlier of the absolute pervasiveness of antisemitism in the German population. So much so that even strenuous opposition to the Nazi party seems to be compatible with a willingness to share its eliminationist program. Goldhagen quotes Mischmann's diary as one of many examples illustrating this principle.
Hi, Upton.

I want to let you finish with Goldhagen’s book before commenting too much. But while I agree that antisemitism was a part of German society it wasn’t anymore or any less pervasive than in other European countries. Goldhagen overemphasizes the German aspect of it while ignoring that it was also very pervasive in places like France, Poland, Romania, etc. In fact violence towards Jews was historically much more prevalent in Russia than it ever was in Germany.

It’s been some time since I read Goldhagen’s book, I own it (or did) but it’s been 3-4 years since I looked at it. When you finish open a thread on it. I’ll see if I can track my copy down but the library also has a digital copy I can borrow.

The 1933 boycott organized by the Nazi government wound up being a failure and actually an embarrassment. Germans really didn’t go along with it for a variety of reasons.

I will suggest you track down a copy of “Ordinary Men.” There is a revised edition that is worth reading.
Thanks Jeff, I'll get "Ordinary Men" after I finish with Goldhagen. Still, the sheer number of atrocities against Jews in Germany, all through the 1930s, is appalling. I was particularly disappointed to learn that even Thomas Mann expressed satisfaction with the expulsion of Jewish judges. Mann also went to live (beyond his means, I've heard) in Princeton. I used to go frequently to the house where he lived (1938--1940) when I was a graduate student (1963--1966). It was by that time the Catholic Student Center and chapel.
“It is certainly sad and regrettable that so many innocent people died…Stalin was absolutely adamant on making doubly sure: spare no one…I don’t deny that I supported that view. I was simply not able to study every individual case…It was hard to draw a precise line where to stop.”

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin (“Molotov”)

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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Jun 26, 2019 1:54 am

Halfway interesting court case in 1933 relating to the stated reasons for the April boycott of the Jewish shops: A man (mother "of German blood" and "a Jewish father") who worked for the German Pharmacists' Association was dismissed from employment on 1 April 1933, the day of the boycott, with reference "to the government's regulation against so-called atrocity propaganda." PMJ1, p 311 The man appealed two lower court decisions that ruled in the Association's favor.

The appeals court remanded the case based on the following reasoning, as published in Juritische Wochenschift, 13 January 1934:

Image

It seems that the "atrocity propaganda" charge was simply that the fired employee had a Jewish father and the Nazis had boycotted Jewish shops.

The court, still in 1933, even with recognition of "the changed attitudes of the nationalist state and the German people in general . . . toward the Jews," trying to apply the laws, held that the stature on dismissals of non-Aryans targeted only specific groups of employees (those "who provide public services or who are in positions of public trust") and that, whilst Jewish employees could be dismissed for being Jews, the legality of such dismissals depended on the particulars of each case. In this case, according to the court, the Association had given "manifestly unfounded" reasoning - that is, anti-German atrocity propaganda abroad, which could not be connected to the plaintiff. (p 312)
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Thu Jun 27, 2019 1:08 pm

A Gestapo report of April 1934 on surveillance of Jewish organizations, contrary to Nazi propaganda claims of coordinated Jewish attacks on Germany, delineated, by organization, the differing outlooks and programs of German Jews. The Gestapo noted divisions on the question of German nationalism and assimilation, Zionism, segregation, and religion. The Gestapo report concluded that

- "the internal disunity of the Jews is the best ally in preventing the influence of Jews with the realm of domestic politics"
- "Jewish organizational activity of a subversive nature has of late no longer been observed. . . . No attacks on the National Socialist Movement and the new state have been recorded. . . . the Jews make efforts not to conspicuously present themselves in the new state as adversaries"

(A June report from the Reich Chancellery on one Jewish organization, the Reich League of Jewish Combat Veterans, also stressed the "unconditional national stance" of the organization, which "firmly rejects all international ties," the Gestapo noting that the league condemed especially the approach of the Zionists but also opposed assimilation and integration of Jews in Germany.)

The Gestapo report continued to express concern about Judah's declaration of war (that is, "boycott propaganda"), attributing calls for the economic boycott of Germany to Jews abroad. There's only a brief reference to Untermyer (misspelled in the report) in the US, with the focus being ""the main centres of agitation activity . . . in nearly all neighboring countries" to Germany. The Gestapo report did not find evidence of agitation for the boycott or other protest actions among the German Jews.

Goebbels, in a May 1934 Sportspalast speech, reiterated the Nazis' determination to hold the Jews of Germany to account, and basically use them as hostages, no matter the international realities ("outside world"), no matter the positions taken by German Jews, and no matter the intelligence provided by the Gestapo:
If part of the outside world still imposes an anonymous boycott on us and refuses to buy German goods, then we know very well that this can be traced back to our fellow Jewish citizens. . . . The Jews might think think that they are doing their fellows in Germany a service. They are doing the worst thing that they could possibly do, for they should not believe that if they really carried the boycott to the lengths needed to actually endanger our economic situation, it would mean that we would let the Jews leave freely.
Here, in a neat, tight passage, Goebbels contradicts himself - and Gestapo intelligence - on the source of the boycott, admits that the wild rhetoric about Jewish war declarations is specious, acknowledges that the attempt at an international boycott hasn't had significant effect on Germany, and threatens German Jews for the independently taken actions of some international organizations.

PMJ1 pp 350-352, 360, 367
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Fri Jun 28, 2019 9:58 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Thu Jun 27, 2019 1:08 pm
A Gestapo report of April 1934 on surveillance of Jewish organizations . . . concluded that

- "the internal disunity of the Jews is the best ally in preventing the influence of Jews with the realm of domestic politics" . .
In the same vein, a Gestapo report on Jewish youth organizations in Germany, dated 2 August 1934 said that the authorities should
consider it inexpedient to subsume the fragmented Jewish youth groups into one umbrella organization, because such a legal compulsion might in fact work to reduce the fragmentation among the youth groups.
The Gestapo's strategy was to keep Jews divided and to foment conflict and "fragmentation"; what is more, the Gestapo was well aware that the German Jews had serious differences among them, amounting to fracturing to the point of atomization, in their religious and political views, how they saw their interests, what connections they sought with Jews in other countries, and how they related to the national revolution.

This practical awareness, and the concomitant strategic plan, of the Gestapo stood in stark contrast to the Nazis' public propaganda about Jewish war declarations, coordinated hostility to Germany, subversive designs, etc.

PMJ1, p 387
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Goody67 » Sat Jun 29, 2019 8:24 pm

Diemut Majer in ""Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich" wrote that the early stages of Nazi laws provides a perfect example of how tyranny overtook democracy and became the norm to such an extent that even spontaneous actions were justified by the regime. With regards to specifically the boycott, she wrote:
These actions, especially the central boycott that the Party leadership of the NSDAP ordered to take place on April 1, 1933, against "Jewish shops, Jewish goods, Jewish physicians, and Jewish attorneys-at-law and which was "lawfully" organized by the so-called municipal boycott committees could not help being temporary in nature, largely because of the manifestly disadvantageous consequences in terms of foreign policy and foreign trade that it brought upon the still uncertain regime; a second reason was that the popularization of the boycott measures by the National Socialist propaganda machine did not achieve the success desired by the NSDAP leadership.
"Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich, pp. 79-80.

Peter Longerich wrote about the Nazis usage of boycotts:
Local National Socialist papers had begun openly encouraging the boycott of Jewish businesses since the end of the 1920s. The boycott became a regular part of National Socialists' local strategies for gaining power in many areas, and from 1931-2 took on a violent form: customers were prevented from entering shops, windows were smashed, and the owners of shops threatened.
Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews, p. 24.

The Nazis boycott in April 1933 was based on earlier models that they had used to gain votes.
The boycott movement that originated with the National Socialists and other radical völkisch forces was only supported by a minority of the population at large; it was not a truly popular movement, but the openness with which the boycott was propagated proved to be decisive, as did the fact that the boycott, although it was in many instances against current law, was generally tolerated and did not produce a counter-movement to offer resistance. Those who encouraged others to boycott Jewish businesses, heads of personnel who refused to employ Jewish applicants, guesthouse owners who did not accommodate Jews risked no general social disapproval or fatal economic consequences.

It became clear, therefore, that radical anti-Semitism and its central demand for the exclusion of Jews from the rights of citizenship was not limited to the agitation of the NSDAP but gradually took root in the political and social life of the Weimar Republic. The radical anti-Semitic forces had succeeded in forcing the Republic to enter into a debate on the ‘Jewish question’.
p.25.
If the Nazi leadership resolved at the end of March to call once more for a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses—centrally coordinated this time—then it did so for a mixture of tactical and fundamentally ideological reasons.
p. 35

Longerich then wrote how the boycott enabled the Nazis to take full advantage of The Enabling Act and taking full control of activists and their desires, especially allowing violence against their enemies to be carried out "legally".

Also:
By starting a campaign against the German Jews, or in other words by seizing hostages, the NS leadership hoped to be able to stem the rising tide of criticism from abroad. By labelling criticism of this type ‘Jewish atrocity stories’, which emanated from a relatively small section of foreign Jews, they defined international reaction against the brutalities of the ‘seizure of power’ in anti-Semitic terms, and at the same time created the pretext for the planned boycott. Such tactical considerations should not obscure the fact that, only a few months after taking over the reins of government the NSDAP was using the call for a boycott to begin implementing a significant element in its political programme, namely the disenfranchisement of the Jewish minority. This makes it clear that Nazi Judenpolitik cannot be understood in merely functional terms, as an instrument designed to mobilize the NS movement; it was one of the central pillars of the NSDAP’s ideology, and there was no difference of opinion on this point between the Party leadership and the ordinary Party members. The campaigns against Jewish businesses undertaken under centralized direction, and pre-empted by the violence of March 1933, were now linked with the continuing attacks on Jewish lawyers to form a comprehensive anti-Jewish crusade underpinned by the authority of the regime. In this way the pressure needed to initiate anti-Semitic legislation—the ‘atmospheric’ conditions for it— could be created. Under this pressure, the Jews could be removed from public life, and from state institutions in particular, and an appropriate platform could be created for the complete segregation of the Jewish minority that was to follow at a later date. The successful enforcement of these first anti-Jewish measures allowed the NSDAP to make the ‘Jewish question’ a dominant factor in domestic policy within only a few months of their coming to power. Problems as distinct as the economic situation of the lower middle class, the seething violence of the SA and the international isolation of the Reich were to be reduced to a single common point of origin, stamped with the slogan ‘the Jews are our misfortune’. By unleashing the anti-Jewish campaign the NSDAP succeeded above all in seizing the domestic policy initiative and in maximizing their room for manoeuvre vis-à-vis their conservative coalition partners. The practical preparations for boycott were begun on 26 March after a conversation between Hitler and Goebbels. They were entrusted to Julius Streicher, district chief or Gauleiter of the area around Nuremberg and one of the most radical anti-Semites in the whole Party, who was made the chair of a ‘Central Committee to Combat Jewish Lies about Atrocities and Boycott’. On 28 March the Committee issued a call to prepare the boycott. Responsibility for it was clearly claimed by Hitler in the cabinet meeting held on 28 March 1933, when he informed the cabinet that ‘he, the Reich Chancellor himself, had ensured that the appeal would be issued to the National Socialist Party’.
pp. 35-36.

The boycott did exactly what the Nazis had hoped from the German public:
The boycott did in fact enable the regime to achieve its intentions. Even if innumerable reports confirm that a proportion of the public deliberately shopped that day in Jewish-owned businesses, the majority of the population evidently acted just as the regime had expected them to. On that day most people avoided going to Jewish shops. The boycott therefore largely achieved its aims. The regime could also claim as a further aspect of its success the fact that since the end of March, in anticipation of the imminent boycott, a whole series of voices usually heard in opposition to the government had taken a public stance against foreign claims of atrocities being perpetrated in Germany and had mobilized their contacts abroad in like manner. The National Socialists thus succeeded in presenting foreign responses provoked by their own anti-Jewish campaign as ‘anti-German’ attacks and in exploiting this skewed picture to send out messages of trustworthiness and images of inoffensiveness to the rest of the world. At this very early point it is apparent how the ‘Jewish question’, handled with the appropriate political and promotional skill, could be utilized to influence and confuse public opinion not only in Germany but in the rest of the world as well. It is remarkable that even Jewish organizations and institutions such as the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith) and the Jewish Veterans’ Organization, the Boards of the Jewish community in Berlin and elsewhere, as well as many Jewish private individuals and entrepreneurs took part in the attempts to minimize the criticisms of the situation in Germany voiced by those abroad. After a discussion with Goering on 25 March, the Organization of German Zionists and the Centralverein decided on a particularly spectacular course: they sent a joint delegation to London to argue against a boycott of German goods. The fact that on the delegation’s return, the Centralverein publicly declared the mission a success, underlines the precarious situation of the German-Jewish officials: the ‘success’ of their mission could also be seen as confirming the NS argument to the effect that ‘the Jews’ were responsible for behind-the-scenes propaganda and boycott campaigns against Germany but had supposedly buckled under massive pressure and desisted from their shameful activities.
pp. 37-38.
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Re: 1933 Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Germany: "The Jews must be crushed. Their fellows abroad played into our hands.

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Jun 30, 2019 3:10 am

One thing that the documents in PMJ1 reiterate is the extent to which the end of the "official” one-day boycott didn't mean the end to anti-Jewish boycotts. Boycott activity was endemic to the period, creating a Party-state conflict and taking a toll on Jews in many cities and towns across Germany. There are reports that Jewish-owned businesses saw turnover decline, even complaints about job losses, arrests of participants in the agitation, and other fallout from Party organized actions, as the Party and state wrestled with what to do. The documents in PMJ1 also challenge the idea that boycotts, segregation of the Jews, economic discrimination against the Jews, and actions meant to demean and isolated the Jews came only from the Party; in fact, many petitions, letters, pleas, and ideas for removal of the Jews from civic and economic life came from members of the public.
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