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Jean-Claude Pressac was a pharmacist. At the beginning of the 1980s, it has been attempted by the holocaust denial to the sides of Faurisson. But it has opened our eyes to the obvious and has become a specialist in the technique of the crematoria and the gas chambers of Auschwitz. Fred Leuchter is a crook who has committed in 1988, at the request of the nazi Ersnt Zündel, "expertise" claiming fraudulent demonstrate the technical impossibility of the gas chambers.
http://www.phdn.org/negation/pressac-leuchter.htmlThe shortcomings and inconsistencies in the "Report Leuchter"
by Jean-Claude Pressac
Day J, the letter Jewish Telegraphic, 12 December 1988
Presented mainly in the 5th issue of the Annals of revisionist history ( summer-autumn 1988) , the " Leuchter Report " is meant to demonstrate that the gas chambers of Auschwitz -Birkenau and Majdanek could never work so.
Dated April 5 , 1988, this report was produced at the Court of Toronto (Canada) to the following 20 and 21, during the appeal trial of Ernst Zündel . accused by a Jewish association to have distributed a brochure revisionist somewhat dated ( Did Six Million Really Die ? ) .
Without question the charge on the legality of the report and the lack of historians versed in the complex field of gas chambers to invalidate its contents exposed by Leuchter seemed so "striking" that Zündel and his staff of deniers whose principal was Robert Faurisson, cried to the win. The report led to the conversion of the English historian David Irving to the nihilistic theses, but did not prevent the condemnation of Zündel to nine months in prison.
The report had been caused by Faurisson. The comparison between the American execution gas chambers and those German homicides in Poland is one of the cornerstones of his argument. In his thinking , the extreme sophistication of raw invalidate the existence of seconds as too primitive to work safe for users.
Find an American specialist in execution gas chambers was lucky to Faurisson. Him to share his views, unexpected but logical enough . Convince him to go in Communist Poland . study the German gas chambers based on his knowledge of US and those to come expose before the Toronto Tribunal the results of its "expertise " seems incredible but obvious when you put it the price. Admittedly Faurisson merit of this approach, funded by Zündel , which could have led to a "success" and led to a fiasco.
Who is Fred A. Leuchter, Jr? An engineer [Chief Engineer] Boston (Massachusetts), "specialist in the design and manufacture of instruments of capital punishment ... by way of hydrocyanic gas", in the words of its report. One of the designers and builders of execution gas chambers in the United States. His professional interest is to make room for effective execution gas (rapid death of the condemned) and safe (no risk for users). Over such a facility will be sophisticated, the more it will bring money to Leuchter. If American penitentiaries had opted for technical rooms to German homicidal gas, Leuchter would be long-term unemployed.
For Faurisson, his thesis requires that the design and the process of using execution gas chambers for a person to be extremely complex, by comparison, to establish that those German, summary, could never kill one thousand at a time. For Leuchter, perfect this killing instrument is his livelihood. Their interests, consistent, favored an association that Leuchter did pay full price.
Discerned. If Leuchter accepted the "dangerous" mission behind the "iron curtain", it was not generously to defend "truth" deleterious Faurisson, but motivated by the high fees he asked Zündel and that he paid him. So Leuchter, accompanied by his wife acting secretary of the industrial designer, a cameraman (friend of Zündel) and a multilingual interpreter, visited Poland from 25 February to 3 March 1988. The expedition cost to Zündel a fortune. At Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek, Leuchter, according to his report, he had inspected the facilities Survey, there proceeded to surveys and samples are levied at the end of analysis. He reports that "much of the documentation was purchased and tested on site in Poland, including copies of the original plans of the Krema I, II, III, IV and V" indicating that these historical materials provided to it "by officials of museums that are in place" as the were "copies of the plans of the Krema I, II, III, IV and V obtained at the Auschwitz museum."
The "mission" had to be taken, in both camps , fragments of brick and cement into the gas chambers , the location was easy to identify thanks to the indications of the guides and museum plans provided by their archives. At Majdanek , no levy was not realized . At Auschwitz -Birkenau Thirty-two were. Here are the details and location following the numbering which was assigned to them [ the K.G.L. Birkenau ]
- Crematorium II ( in the ruins of his Leichenkeller [L- Keller ] 1 / corpse cellar 1) : seven ( No. 1-7 )
- Crematorium III ( in the ruins of his L- Keller 1) : four (No. 8-11 )
- Zentral Sauna [ disinfection facility] : a lining ( No. 12 ) [ erased a door leaf of a four disinfection chambers with hot air Topf , this completes lying in the same home in the middle part building , north ( side "dirty" / unreine Seite ) ]
- Crematorium IV ( on all the walls of the building reconstructed ) : eight (No. 13-20 )
- Crematorium V ( on the reconstructed walls of the western part): four ( No. 21 to 24) . [ The main camp Auschwitz ]
- Crematorium 1 (in its Leichenhalle / morgue ) : seven ( No. 25 to 31) [ to K.L.G. Birkenau ]
- Installation delousing BW 5a of B.la sector : one ( No. 32 ) [ in the former chamber delousing gas Zyclon -B of the west wing of the building ] .
The fragments collected (except No. 12) consisted of pieces of brick which sometimes adhered cement. Each sample taken was filmed and the product placed in a small black plastic bag, then tightly sealed. Once the team had returned to the United States, the samples were submitted to a laboratory for Ashland (Massachusetts) to determine each sample residual cyanide levels (except for 12 which Leuchter wondered composition [felt] and which was nevertheless carried a cyanide assay). After exhaustion aqueous samples, assays were performed on the resulting solutions. The laboratory results returned on 15 March.
Ultimately, the report Leuchter gives the impression that his trip had gone well and that the cooperation of employees museum Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek had been perfect. The results of cyanide assays on samples supported the findings of the ingénieura Leuchter who calmly told the Toronto Tribunal bar the facilities presented as homicides in the two aforementioned concentration camps had never been used as such and that due to their design and their implementation, they had not been used as homicidal gas chambers.
The operation of Leuchter Report by the deniers soon. In late April, Faurisson, in an article published by Rivarol trumpeted his triumph he believed final. In June, one of his henchmen, Alain Guionnet, editor leaflets signed "Black Eagle", demanded violent "murderers in history ... ... accountable." The scientific aspect of the Leuchter report can induce serious doubts about the toxic agent used by the SS in their gas chambers. A person troubled by these results forward in July as hydrogen cyanide was never used, but another gas, Sarin (a cholinesterase inhibitor) was used to kill Jews. If this explanatory reflex primary defense may seem valid, it is, without question, historically wrong.
What turning point of the report allows deniers think they have "won"? The confrontation between the amount of residual cyanide in the delousing gas chamber BW 5a Birkenau (sample No. 32) giving 1050 mg / kg [milligrams of cyanide per kilogram brick] and those ranging from 0 to 7.9 mg / kg provided by levies on all the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Result triggering the following question: how can we believe that local, is said to have served daily poisoning of thousands of victims of hydrocyanic acid for one or two years, will contain only minute traces of cyanide while others premises used for delousing during the same time and with the same gas, exhibit remains of a hundred and fifty times intensity a thousand times?
Such were the circumstances of the Leuchter Report . Negative findings that the engineer formula appear to have been developed outside the chemical context. Yet it is on this that rely deniers to formulate the opinion before the previous poll they see as "final" . The obvious answer (for them) is that not a single Jew had been killed in the offending premises.
What has been traced reflects the version of the deniers who, as 'respectable' they want to present it, is vitiated by obvious: financially linked to Zündel, it was difficult to Leuchter, returning to Poland, to say coldly his client that the gas chambers had indeed worked.
Intellectual dishonesty Faurisson and historical deficiency are evident in his "writings". It was predictable that the Leuchter Report, handled by Faurisson, suffer from these defects. This rule is checked once more in this work, whose pitiful level no different from the usual nihilistic publications. Based on false knowledge, inducing false reasoning, leading to misinterpretations, the Leuchter report is inadmissible because realized in illegal conditions, ignoring the most basic historical data and scuttled by gross miscalculations and surveying .
Faurisson 's article in Rivarol in France revealed the existence of the ingénieura Leuchter , his "technical" report and the "surprising" results obtained quantitative ( unencrypted then ) . It was hardly a surprise to the author of this article , seeing that the exploitation of the phenomenon of "blue wall " that he knew a long time. The delousing installations and those homicides was used where the hydrogen cyanide [ disengaging at 27 ° C and inert porous support contained in the boxes of a destructive vermin product sold under the name B - Zyclon by Degesch of Frankfurt am Main] were strictly similar designs : indoors variable scaling one or two watertight doors or made temporarily sealed and equipped with one or two fans for ventilation (Which can sometimes make course). Their employment procedures were radically different. Lice are less sensitive to the toxicity of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) than is man. A concentration of hydrogen cyanide 0.3 g [ram] / m3 (median lethal dose) is immediately lethal to humans as to destroy lice, a concentration of 5 g / m3 applied for at least two hours is required. If we maintain this concentration (5 g / m3) six, all insects are wiped out (given the Degesch]. At Birkenau, the dose poured into the gas chambers was 40 times lethal (12 g / m3), this infallibly killed a thousand people in less than 5 minutes. After aeration was caused or powered ventilation. Then came the incineration of corpses for 24 hours (in crematoria II and III). the contact time of HCN with the walls of the gas chambers did not exceed ten minutes per day at a temperature below 30 ° C. in the delousing chambers of clothing a minimum concentration of 5 g / m3 was used for several cycles daily whose duration varied with the chosen contact time. This hydrocyanic saturation for 12 to 18 hours a day was enhanced by the heat released from stoves (located in Room) providing a temperature of 30 ° C. The walls were Impregnated hot HCN at least twelve hours a day what would cause in situ formation of a dye Prussian blue or ferrocyanide potasso-ferric variable composition depending on the conditions of preparation. The bluish color of the walls inside and outside was not visible to the release of the two camps, late 1944 and early 1945. It was manifested in the following years caused by various physicochemical factors study has not yet been undertaken. The appearance of blue walls in the delousing gas chambers now to distinguish them visually, empirically but with absolute certainty, of those homicides where this phenomenon is absent. Without heat input. too short contact hydrocyanic doses, though high, with walls of homicides installations could cause development of the reaction that is significant, that is to say visible.
Regarding the delousing gas chambers Zyclon -B , Faurisson and Leuchter combine inconsistencies. Here's the first : Faurisson says that the gas chambers were too primitive to be used safely by the SS in front of those highly secure US execution. But since the delousing facilities and gas homicides were carried out according to the same design and only the operating process differentiates them , one wonders how , logically , he managed to accept those delousing while he denies fiercely all reality to those killings.
As to the second , the head is Leuchter . Faurisson asserted that according to the "judgment" of the ingénieura , Majdanek gas chambers could , too, have been homicides. The author, who visited the camp, knew that three local , presented as homicidal gas chambers at Zyclon -B , included blue walls , a special intensity . He thought , naively, that if Leuchter admitted as delousing gas chamber that of BW His Birkenau , he had to admit that at least two of the three local Majdanek suspects were homicides , since the blue areas were not lacking on their walls . Against the evidence , Leuchter their dénia this feature ...
Traces "infinitesimal" cyanide found in old gas chambers of the crematoria of Auschwitz-Birkenau generate Faurisson, who was expecting a completely negative result consistent with his "vision". In an attempt to explain them, he should resume the most hackneyed of his untruths: minute traces came from disinfection to Zyclon-B sometimes suffered the "morgues" [term for the project-plans of the crematoria underground rooms or surface to fill this role and which were later transformed into gas chambers. Faurisson retains only their first state]. The hydrocyanic acid is primarily used as a destroyer of vermin, such as insects and rodents. Ranked insecticide and rat poison, it has no bactericidal or germicidal activity reported by antiseptic. It disinfects a place, local, effects with various solid antiseptic (lime, calcium chloride), liquids (bleach, cresol), gas (formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide). It grooms clothing with insecticide or disinfectant in the summary in autoclaves by dry steam. But it does not disinfect a morgue with an insecticide or rat poison like cyanide gas, and said foolishly Faurisson, which would place a cautery on a wooden leg. Leuchter, scientist of training instead of Faurisson, similarly will use this nonsense in his report.
The gap between the cyanide rates recorded between delousing facilities and those killings, the small amounts of cyanide found in the past , had allowed deniers ask them "terrible" interrogation . However , these results are consistent with our current historical knowledge. If Faurisson had wanted better documentation , he would have understood instead of wandering believing see " tear the veil of the great swindle ". In sum , despite the nihilistic attempts , nothing new on the old planet Auschwitz otherwise the perennial reminder of the slaughter of over a million Jews . (Note: 1,352,980 in total, according to remarkable study by Professor Wellers ' Assay determination of the number of deaths at Auschwitz » appeared in The Jewish World Review C.D.J.C. , No. 112, 1983. )
The French publication of the party "living " report in the " Annals " only confirmed the historical ignorance of Leuchter ( and Faurisson ) about these two camps. That of Majdanek , we can see that it is total [ we see the study at end of article ] . Encryption cyanide rate , if reserved surprises, not compensated in any way the enormities of principle made by Leuchter , Faurisson couple. The French text of the report contained in excess of quirks.
Mention a plan of Crematorium V, never drawn by the SS is absurd. German civilian companies who built jointly IV and V were using the Plan IV (map Bauleitung No. 2036 of 11 January 1943) in the symmetrically reversed for V. Refer to the map of Crematorium III was useless in the context of " work "Leuchter focused on one of his" Mortuaries "located in the basement, because the remaining copy of III (map Bauleitung No. 2136 of 22 February 1943) did this as the ground floor accompanied facades south and west. Leuchter says that he purchased these plans on site, to the Auschwitz museum which would have been unable to give him a picture of the plane crematorium V. The string was a little big. The good-natured tone in which he brought his decorated tours of "levies" too. The author asked the museum administration official confirmation of his doubts. They proved based [see attached two telegrams: one was addressed to Tadeusz lwaszko, curator of the Museum Archives, more likely to indicate the plans requested and delivered; The second response is signed by Kazimierz Smolen, director of the museum. So. all historical documentation Leuchter came from Faurisson, which was more and worrying about "impartiality", already fully mortgaged, the ingénieura. The bibliography of the full report, citing books and consulted plans, demonstrates precisely. So Leuchter was lying on his documentary sources because he could not buy in Poland as brochures and summary books for visitors camps. Furthermore, he carefully kept to consult the historical material available to museum archives.
Drawdowns by Leuchter being illegal , the author will discuss their concentrations of cyanide that under the express condition that they are checked by an official chemical expertise. Admitting the subject as valid , some results can seem unexpected at first glance, logically explain :
- Crematorium II: the seven samples do not contain cyanides (measurable limit rate: 1 mg / kg). Yet the gas chamber of it (called L-Keller 1] was the most used of the camp. It was dynamited by the SS in January 1945. Its ruins are these days regularly flooded by 30 cm of water in summer level up to 1 m in the snow melts. the absence of cyanides would come from their solubilization by rainwater and those of the water table. the excavations on the periphery of its walls in 1960 to 1970 may be an aggravating factor negative. another chemical expertise would be possible, but not mandatory. for the end of 1945, a toxicological research was performed by the Institute of forensic examinations of Krakow on six openings [or "grids"] zinc (which belonged to vent higher L-Keller 1) found in the ruins of crematorium II by the regional Commission to investigate the German crimes in Poland in Krakow. Two types of reactions were performed on scrapings taken from the surface of "grids" in order to are qualitatively search cyanides. The first reaction gave a bluish color from the Prussian blue is obtained, the second an orange color coming from obtaining thiocyanate, both indicating the presence of compounds of hydrogen cyanide. The reactions carried out are specific cyanides and insensitive, that is to say, requiring a high amount of cyanide is present for the reaction develops. Three of these "grids" are always kept in the reserves of the Auschwitz Museum.
Additional toxicological analysis is possible.
- Crematorium III on four samples , two are negative and two positive (1.9 and 6.7 mg / kg). Although his L- 1 Keller , similarly blown up by the SS in January 45, is in ruins, it is significantly less humid than that of He . If a few centimeters of water permanently stagnate on its soil , the water level in the melting snow does not exceed 5 to 10 cm. The two positive results are consistent with our knowledge. The two negatives will be explained later .
- Crematorium IV on eight samples, five negative and three positive (1.4 twice and 2.3 mg / kg). According to documents and German words, the crematorium IV would hardly functioned, quickly set off irreversibly service. Results should be negative. Burned during the Sonderkommando revolt of October 44, the IV was then dismantled. The SS left in a basic bare concrete, and found in the camp's liberation. After the war, museum officials did reconstruct the internal partitioning of the IV materializing the walls rebuilt by 2036 according to the plan with bricks from the rubble of the crematorium V. The presence of cyanide can be explained because Leuchter "opera" on bricks belonging not to the crematorium IV to V, but homicide gas chambers were used extensively during the summer of 44. Furthermore, Leuchter says 1875 ft2 (174 m2) area as the three old gas chambers so that the crematorium IV it covers 240 m2. The author returns to this error.
- Crematorium V on four samples, two are negative and two positive (1.7 and 4.4 mg / kg). These results are consistent with the building's history. The V functioned idling when commissioning (April 43) in the summer of 44. During the massive arrival of Hungarian Jews, his oven 8 crucibles incinerators already failing became Unusable. Instead, five small open burning pits were dug behind the building in order to burn the corpses produced by its gas chambers "turned" at full capacity. Following the fire IV in October and dismantling and III in December 44, the V remained Runic crematorium at Birkenau to work, and so "normal" (the oven only being used) until mid -January 45. One night, the SS made the jump. The Commission investigation found in Soviet only a huge pile of rubble including the excavation was immediately undertaken. The rubble was warped on the building's perimeter in order to identify the concrete itself. Then, a complete reconstruction of the V was planned and committed. For some reason, she was interrupted while the height of the walls was about one meter. The various manipulations had mixed bricks, which provides more accurate results but only rough approximations from the current positions of the bricks. Leuchter doubled the size of three and four gas chambers V, giving it 5125 ft2 (476 m2) instead of 240 m2.
- [The Zentral Sauna, sampling felting on a door leaf of the four bedrooms disinfection with hot air was made to satisfy the obsession of wanting to find Faurisson cyanides where there is not and did not find where there is]
- Crématoire 1: seven samples, one was negative and positive six (1.1; 1.3 twice, 1.4, 1.9 to 3.8 and 7.9 mg / kg). Crematorium 1 having been used primarily as a testing ground for homicidal gassings and, therefore, its morgue had been little used in gas chamber, cyanides rate should have been the lowest while the highest is noted there. The ruins of the crematoria II and Ill, the restored walls of the IV and V, are exposed to the elements for over forty years. It's almost a miracle that there are still hydrocyanic compounds Assayable. As against the 1, despite the internal transformations undergone, remained in its original state. The walls of his mortuary / gas chambers were never exposed to sunlight, rain, snow (factors contributing to lower cyanide) and were and are other crematoria. This is the explanation of this exceptional rate. Indeed, despite many an oral and written testimony affirming it was not possible to physically show by German documents that the morgue of Crematorium 1 had worked in homicidal gas chamber. If the results are confirmed Leuchter after official toxicoiogiques assays, the engineer will have made, despite his intentions, irrefutable material evidence of the homicide employment missing historians.
- [ The reference sample practiced by Leuchter in the delousing facility BW 5a is hardly mentioned . No study of the gas chamber was taken. The " expert " Leuchter was here suicidal. Because, as usual, he would have found impossible to be gassed there (even lice ) , the same time removing any value to the sample No. 32 ]
The incinerating capacity ovens are also processed by Leuchter . They become so ridiculous in that round will not respond , only recalling the letter of 28 June, 43 the commander SS Kart Bischoff , head of the Auschwitz Bauleitung (construction Branch) , sent to his superiors in Berlin let them know the daily performance of five camp crematoria . although these figures called for reservations , they exist and the historian must reflect this.
Leuchter latest blow by the association homicidal gas chambers and cremation ovens: he declares incompatible under the same roof. Upon opening the door of the local saturated hydrogen cyanide, no local breakdown by Leuchter, the gas would spread throughout the crematorium would have reached the ovens lit and, combined with air, would have exploded destroying the building ... the flammability limits in air to FHCN are 5.6% (minimum) to 40% (maximum) volume. This means that contact with a flame, there is explosion if the concentration of hydrogen cyanide in air is between 67.2 g / m3 and 480 g / m3. Below 67.2 g / m3, no risk; above 480 g / m3, not to risk either because it does not rest enough oxygen to cause inflammation. The SS used doses of 5 g / m3 in delousing and 12 g / m3 homicide, doses well below the threshold of 67.2 g / m3. Their crematoria and gas chambers were not ready to explode. The "unbiased" opinion "Chief Engineer" Leuchter based on a miscalculation. This twisted idea came from Faurisson. That the Leuchter has bonded without the check is staggering.
The burning pits that were dug in the birch woods and near the crematorium V were, according to Leuchter, never have been, because the water table "is only 40 cm from the surface." The author would like to see the pictures of burning pits "inspected" personally [!] By Leuchter in Birkenau. It would recognize the four temporary settling pits for waste waters in the same stage of construction. Aside from his total ignorance of the place, Leuchter reports only a situation familiar to area residents of Oswiecim, only valid today and following the season. Birkenau is only a huge swamp, the SS had to drain the camp ground, greatly lowering (2 to 3 meters) the level of the water table. Maintenance since liberation, drainage has become progressively innefficace, causing a rise in the water level. This can be verified by noting the almost complete immersion of the basement of the Zentral Sauna, the "house of pumps" of the II WWTP, and part of the L-Keller 1 of crematorium II. In addition, during the Leuchter visit in February-March, the water table was at its highest seasonal level. However, the known activity of burning pits is placed in October- November 42 and was 44, out of the "critical" season.
French extract published in the " Annals " is not exploitable by historians because the plans showing the location of sampling in crematoria missing. Having been able to obtain the full report of Leuchter and after study plans , the author could not contain his indignation for such "work" that is not even the trash where it will end . Leuchter has dishonored his title of ingénieura . Here it is possible to withdraw its levies location plans :
- Crematorium 1: according to the plan (copied on those Topf and Sons No d.59042 [a] September 25, 41 and Bauleitung No. 4287 [a] September 21, 44), it seems that the negative sample No. 31, was taken to the ground. The absence of cyanide is normal, the concrete floor is cleaned regularly with water for forty years by the Museum personnel.
- Crematorium II: map samples copied from the Bauleitung basement No. 932 of January 23, 42.
No change from previous author remarks, except that Leuchter fled the points of L-Keller 1 where he might have found cyanide.
- Crematorium III: withdrawal plan obtained by symmetrical inversion of the Bauleitung No. 932. Positive samples 8 and 9 are located south of Keller L-1, part remained in the state since 1945, when both negative and 10 11 belong to the northern part which was completely cleared during excavations in August 68 to update the openings bass venting the gas chamber and were successful. Malheureusernent, unconsolidated excavations victims of gully erosion, led to the collapse of the banks who transformed all into an indistinct magma which Leuchter pecked his samples 10 and 11.
Crematoria IV and V will be treated together as bricks come from the IV V. Arriving at the two crematoria of the forest. [Of birch wood, Birkenwald], Leuchter and his team had to have at least the 2036 plan of the ground floor of the IV, known Faurisson and published twice by the author [in Memory of Genocide, and CDJC FFDJF 625 and page Nazi Germany and the Jewish genocide, Higher Studies, Gallimard and Le Seuil, 1985, pages 554 and 555. the work seemed simple and easy, the ruins are deserted as usual. But the oppressive silence of the place, the crackle underfoot fragments of human bones exuding from the earth, the view at the end of the ring road of two huge wooden cross flanking the entrance to the new church of Birkenau ( located in the former SS Kommandantur), roused Mrs. Leuchter, shook the camera aimed trembled, turned the meter a designer and undermined the beautiful assurance of fearless Leuchter. He floundered miserably, unable to locate the gas chambers in the two crematoria. Faurisson was not there to hold her hand. The measurements were made anyhow and withdrawals anywhere. In the fourth, they hammer mineralogist nicked bricks in the airlock between the kiln room and the locker room, mortuary, in the latter, in the room called the doctor, in the adjacent coal reserves, in all but three gas chambers . Unaware that the messy mixing bricks could cause the results meaningless, Leuchter not then why even try to cornprendre 15 samples (the lock) and 16 (doctor's room) not to conceal cyanides, had. As for V, the only sample, 24, caught in the north gas chamber proved negative, while 21 and 22 from the doctor's room were positive. The ingénieura still do not comment.
Leuchter was unable to locate the gas chambers is a common mishap, he ignored the brick mixture is almost excusable. What is not, is take historians for fools by offering plans of crematoria IV and V falsified, the absurd dimensions, with walls added and deleted portions. Leuchter tripled all reported surfaces; he created in each doctor's room the two crematoria phantom partition on which he practiced levies; he designed a new model of crematorium IV, the "kurz" or "shortcut", forgetting a slice. For a man who is said to accurate and that "a fact is a fact," to get paid unduly by Zündel for such faults, is infamous.
These final errors, adding to others and their weight alone, definitively bury the "Leuchter Report" in the cesspool of stupidity and human pretension. The turkey that sad "farce" Zündel is that the "Polish spree" in debt up to his neck and was doubly eroded by Leuchter who made a field day of "expertise" sloppy and sabotaged, and Faurisson who operates shamelessly corrupt results.
KL Lublin - Majdanek - :
Here the history of incompetence Leuchter also comes to light . It is only a reflection of that of Faurisson this camp. Leuchter has made no levy in the gas chambers , probably unable to practice "wild" as he did in Auschwitz -Birkenau
The unique component of its scientific investigations being absent, his arguments on the gas chambers and crematoria of Majdanek therefore within subjectivity. Having cut his only valid basis, Leuchter depreciates more comments supporting the current state of play regardless rearrangements suffered by the buildings since the release in order to safeguard the degradations of time. If enferrant in his miscalculations, Leuchter continues to blow from the crematoria suspect that the use of hydrogen cyanide in a morgue. Finally, unable to make a complete tour of the camp, he loses interest in a block of three gas chamber located northeast of the hut 41 (1 Bath and disinfection), fails to explore the camp scale model would have made him understand the origin of facility development that should "appraise" and did not see one of two mobile Kori ovens of the first crematorium kept in barrack 50 of the museum exhibition. Burdened by these deficiencies, these errors, these omissions, the assessments of Leuchter on the gas chambers and crematoria of Majdanek again, having lost any serious foundation, have no value.
According to the official historiography, existed in Lublin-Maidanek K. L. September homicidal gas chambers, some have had a mixed operation, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or carbon monoxide (CO). Without a precise technical study, those gas chambers remain poorly known, because many questions on their march still remain unanswered. It may be that researchers Majdanek Museum have elucidated some, but their narratives do not appear to have been published. In chronological order the building of the gas chambers, here are succinct descriptions of which will be supplemented remarks Leuchter.
The first two gas chambers say homicide, arranged in a wooden hut, were in returns immediately (strip of land between fields 1 and 11). Were nearby laundry and the first crematorium, similarly Housed in a wooden hut, self concrete containing two mobile monomoufles ovens of the firm H. Kori in Berlin, heated heavy oil (oil). Incinerating their overall capacity was estimated by the SS 100 corpses in 12 hours 1 or 4 body / hour incinerator crucible. This yield, compared with three days to 2 mittens Topf crematorium at Auschwitz I (able to perform better than those of Majdanek) is exaggerated and doubled compared to reality. The march of two gas chambers is said to have been mixed. HCN and CO. Then they were transformed into drying room for clothes. Currently, the house where they were still exists but is not included in the circuit offered to visitors of the camp. No research cyanide appears to have been practiced by the Poles. As it stands, the house has many bay windows. which would have made any gassing impractical homicide. Much more significant are the stories of former inmates claiming that dozens of sick and "Muslims", directed daily at that time to this first crematory, were not killed in gas but finished with an iron bar to hit on the neck . It is likely that these two makeshift gas chambers were used for delousing effects with Zyclon B (HCN). The vicinity of the laundry is an additional argument in favor of that interpretation. As for Leuchter, he sees neither this shack (even remotely) or the remaining Kori oven.
The block of three homicides rooms placed in the extension of the northeast "Bad u. Desinfektion 1 "suffered internal changes and external need to track to understand the development and successive functions.
Began in August and ended in September-October 1942, the planned block of 10.60 m 8.64 m high and 2.40 m was to have two rooms exterminating (internal dimensions of each one after construction of 9 2 m by 3.62 m to 2.05 m for cubing 73 m3) with the disinfectant dry heat was achieved by two stoves (delivered by Theodor Klein firm Ludwigshafen at a price of 1400.- RM both). One was placed along the north wall of the block and the heated first local [arbitrarily designated room A on the accompanying diagram], the other was mounted along the south wall to ensure the heating of the local second [said B]. The temperature used was 120 ° C (temperature characteristic of the autoclave disinfection), which involved the use of a thermometer to control it. The hot air was forced inside the premises by fans (one per burner). This block brick walls, cement floor and the concrete ceiling was built at the same g2. Each of the local A and B contained two heavy iron doors (the east and west ends), waterproof, with peephole and a port (only on doors west) allows to put a thermometer to monitor the temperature of revolution. These gates were provided by the Berlin firm Auert. The block and northeastern extremities of the two barracks "Bad u. Desinfektion "were protected from the weather by a large roof-shaped hangar 60 m by 18 m high and 4 to 5 m. The installation used: while strictly as disinfecting effects by dry heat at 120 ° C applied for half an hour. The shed allowed the transport of clothing between the block and the two huts sheltered from rain or snow. Can be likened to that time local A and B to two huge autoclaves.
Handling still burning doors after a disinfection cycle to cause difficulties or stoves not providing the desired temperature, this technique was abandoned and replaced with delousing effects to hydrogen cyanide (Zyclon-B). Heating stoves mechanism was simplified to suit the new method since thirty degrees Celsius was enough to cause evaporation of hydrogen cyanide. The fans were enlevés3. The discs or pellets Zyclon were deposited on the local self by a man wearing gas mask, and then the doors were closed. After exposure to the product room ventilation naturally by conducting door opening (east and west) creating an air current. The staff serving local, then had to either move away places to complete aeration, his could quickly resume work team of gas masks and after a substantial decrease in toxic levels. The use of local A and B delousing gas chambers to HCN is formally certified by the phenomenon of "blue wall" (Prussian blue), its intensity is increased relative to that of delousing facilities BW 5a and Sb Birkenau by hot air blowing directly on the premises (not simple interior heating as Birkenau). The bluish developed on all the walls of the room A and part of those of B (the author will return to this point).
A final block of transformation leads to the creation of gas chambers to murder carbon monoxide. There can not be any doubt about the crime of the development, since the CO, it is fatal to warm-blooded animals (including humans), has not the slightest use in delousing.
Local 8 was divided into two equal parts, designated B1 and B2. Only B1 was equipped with an inlet for CO composed of a metal pipe, pierced with orifices, flow at 30 cm from the self on three sides of the piece and initially connected to a steel cylinder containing oxide liquid carbon. An outdoor shed was added to the center of the west side of the block. It contained two bottles of CO (second to the local A) and a glassed and screened look. One could observe the gassing victims only in the room B1. B2 did not receive similar installation. In the ceiling of the two new pieces obtained, was an aperture. The heating stove former local B, useless in this configuration was transferred and connected along the south wall of the room C (discussed later). Posteriority of shares in two local B with respect to his employment delousing gas chamber at Zyclon is proved by the Prussian blue spots staining the walls and which one of them is cut in half by the transverse bulkhead . Moreover, it is pristine blue trace.
As to the location A, it also received a broadcast apparatus of CO, from the second steel cylinder located in the outer shed. It consists of a tube (smaller section than that of B1), running 30 cm above the ground along the south wall. The gas diffused to the two ends of the pipe through perforated metal sheets located at the local angles. No opening was drilled in the ceiling and it was not laid out visual check from the shed.
The use of areas A, B1 and B2 in gas chambers to murder HCN is difficult and still uncertain. In rooms B1 and B2. it is stated that the granules Zyclon-B were discharged through the ceiling opening. To the knowledge of the author. no testimony reported seeing an SS climb a ladder on the block. The ventilation parts 36 m3 each, not having apertures as that of the ceiling and the door, without artificial ventilation, could only be long. For A, the introduction of toxic an issue as a historian of the museum Maïdanek4 spoke: "We did not throw the Zyclon a ceiling hole as in the previous gas chamber [B1], but by the Bay doors before they closed. " It is frankly unrealistic to imagine an SS, gas mask to the face and a Zyclon-B box in hand, throwing it in the space of about thirty cm in height existing between the heads of victims packed and ceiling (granules of toxic risk from scattering to the local) and then trying to close the door on them, without this operation degenerated into desperate revolt of the victims.
Based on the above data, the author believes that the local A could not operate so as homicide with Zyclon-B. In rooms B1 and B2. Technical seem possible, but actual use is unlikely. Rather, it appears that the SS wanted to have two gas chambers (A and B1) walking CO and different capacities: the A (36 m2) for groups of 250 to 350 people, the B1 (18 m2) for those 125 to 175, numbers that are repeated many times by the survivors encrypting "batches" of the gas chambers. Finally, the openings in ceilings B1 and B2 have served more certainly accelerate air the rooms there rather than projecting the Zyclon-B. Interprétaiion this is only valid for B1. The piece B2, homicide in the development of the block, seems to have played an inactive role of "dead" space, despite its opening in the ceiling.
At the liberation of the camp, the hangar protecting the block was partially damaged. The shed was empty. it was placed in the early Zyclon-B boxes, suggesting that their contents can be poured into the pipe room B1 (not the ceiling opening) 5. CO five steel bottles were found in the camp. After chemical analysis of samples, two were installed in the shed. Thereafter, the hangar was dismantled. The block was covered with a roof of a style reminiscent of the barracks, stables and attached to the house 41 (Bad u. Desinfektion 1). The construction of connecting walls and roof extension between the two buildings nowadays gives the false impression of a homogeneous whole. The stove local A (only found) was enclosed in a glass timber cage. The block was surrounded by a wide ditch in cement, for the collection of rainwater, itself flanked by a stone pavement underneath the camp ground level. All these changes are posterior to 1945.
Leuchter, by not visiting the room B2, neglects the essential role in the evolutionary phases of the block. For him, the use of HCN in the A and B1 of the spaces is mpossible to various considerations of construction and ventilation. Traces internal and external blue walls provide him visible proof, palpable, that many times these places were extensively saturated with hot hydrogen cyanide. He sees the mention lip, but denies any use those local installation delousing the Zyclon-B while their walls shout him otherwise. A job in homicide or HCN CO is, one suspects, inconceivable to him. Unable to compare with the original state that ignores superbly, he was surprised that the openings of the cap does not communicate with the outside (since covered the new roof). The most beautiful "pearl" of his rantings returns to "sidewalk" that "expertise" and [point 12 006 report]: "One of the most remarkable aspects of this complex is that the rooms are surrounded on three sides by a concrete sidewalk that is located below [ground]. This is totally incompatible with rational use of gas because gas leakage would accumulate in this trench and, being sheltered from the wind [false. On the contrary], does not dissipate. This would transform the whole area into a death trap, especially with HCN "c. Leuchter therefore concludes that "... this facility was never intended for a very limited use of HCN." he took this "shock" argument in its conclusions on Majdanek [item 17 005 report]: "... the sidewalk below is a potential trap for HCN, making the building extremely dangerous."
The sixth gas chamber [designated C] is in the house "Bad u. Desinfektion 1 ", mainly containing showers. Local C is located at the northeast end of the building. adjacent to the shower room. This proximity has led to a regrettable confusion in 1950-60, leading to often present the shower room as a homicidal gas chamber (toxic gas being sensible disseminate heads). Local C, 75 m2 of area, or 2.90 tall, 217 m3 of airspace was closed by two watertight doors in wood (a model similar to those used at Auschwitz-Birkenau). There were two openings in the ceiling and two in the south wall where a fixed skylight was, at eye level, illuminating the room. After changing the delousing block homicidal gas chambers, the stove local B was assigned to the local C and placed against the wall sud6. The intense operation of C installation delousing the Zyclon is attested by the extraordinary bluish color of its walls. The use of this local homicide is conceivable only two conditions: the removal fanlight ruptured by victims and adding mechanical ventilation.
After an operation delousing, opening both doors could create an air current that would have resulted from poison gas in other parts of the house. Hence the absolute obligation to maintain closed the door communicating with the shower room. If ventilation could be made between the two upper openings and the door, it would have been long and inefficient You could actually break down, the two closed doors by pulsing (thanks to the stove fan) of hot air into the room. The hydrogen cyanide gas, and made lighter than air escaped through the two holes of the ceiling and diluted in the atmosphere. In no time, the residual rate of HCN, become harmless, permitted the opening of two doors, the establishment of an air stream sweeping the last traces of hydrogen cyanide and cooling Two. Local C and walked delousing gas chamber clothes. Employment homicide, he could have become the most "efficient" gas chamber camp, el location of the skylight had been filled. The presence or absence of the release conditions the skylight function homicide in which the author can not decide now.
Leuchter admits that the local C was used in delousing (the proof is visible on the walls ) but always for ventilation purposes, automatically excludes usage homicide. The stove , the ventilator and the ventilator are not in his argument.
The seventh alleged homicidal gas chamber is located in the new crematorium with a massive assembly of five monomoufles Kori ovens can cremate 300 bodies in 24 hours (the official figure is 1,000 per day). Deputy Director of the Museum told the author that this gas chamber was little, but really very little used, which means clear that it was not used at all. This fiction is maintained to avoid offending the popular belief that wants a crematorium must contain a homicidal gas chamber (as in the crematoria of Auschwitz-Birkenau). Besides this verbal information in a recent history of camp7, the presence of a gas chamber is not indicated in the description of the interior of the new crematorium and for good reason, since the defective part is designated on a morgue German project plan of the building. In use with homicide Zyclon-B, its landlocked position in the building, between the part autopsy, a corridor and said part placed in the coffin, would have imposed an artificial ventilation which no remaining traces are visible. In the event of a natural ventilation by air current, complete evacuation of the crematorium would have been necessary for a term difficult to estimate.
Always victim of his miscalculations, Leuchter concluded that after using "gas" of the morgue at the opening of the doors, the crematorium would have exploded.
« The Terror here is a horrifying fact. There is a fear that reaches down and haunts all sections of the community. No household, however humble, apparently but what lives in constant fear of nocturnal raid by the secret police. . .This particular purge is undoubtedly political. . . It is deliberately projected by the party leaders, who themselves regretted the necessity for it. »
Joseph E. Davies
Joseph E. Davies