Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 4:18 am

I also think that its rather rich that VFX (presumably) endorses the activity of the vile, expansionist NLF - judging by his Vietnam thread - all the while denigrating actual freedom fighters over here.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Wed Sep 26, 2018 4:21 am

Well done Jeff but you also need to investigate how much effort the NKVD put into these Partisans, how much money and to discount the fact that the Soviets sent many of their mercenaries into our territory or their territory. This was guerrilla warfare at its worst. I suspect the rules of any dignity were long gone when all people are fighting for mere breathing. The Vietnam thread has nothing to do with this.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Nessie » Wed Sep 26, 2018 8:45 am

Jeff_36 wrote:
VFX wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote: He has yet to comment on the data, preferring to push out his slogan like some kind of warped advert.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland. The activity emerged after the Nazi German Operation Barbarossa during World War II, and according to Great Soviet Encyclopedia it was coordinated and controlled by the Soviet governmentand modeled on that of the Red Army. The primary objective of the guerrilla warfare waged by the Soviet partisan units was the disruption of the Eastern Front's German rear, especially road and rail communications. There were also regular military formations called partisans, that were used to conduct long-range reconnaissance patrol missions behind Axis lines from the Soviet-held territory. Read more from source :)
And.......????? :lol:

This is a quote from the article that you linked:
Jewish women, children, and the elderly were usually not welcome.


Are you a spoof?
He is trolling and when I tried to engage him in the debate, I was roundly criticised by various people here. The very same people who are now happily trying to engage him in debate.....
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Wed Sep 26, 2018 9:01 am

Nessie wrote:
He is trolling and when I tried to engage him in the debate, I was roundly criticised by various people here. The very same people who are now happily trying to engage him in debate.....
You got problems with your other forum member "flipper". You should have been criticized by the other members due to your inept debate style. Actually no one is engaging in a debate at all, just throwing rocks, spoons and rubber duckies like you.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 10:33 am

Jeff_36 wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote:Jeff. The biggest problem I have with how your responding here is that in your zeal to defend partisan warfare against the Germans you’ve confused two issues. The massacres of Jews were not on account of partisan activity but rather to exterminate Jews as the way to make territory Jew-free. What you think of the partisans is different to that. And in much of the occupied east really a later issue.
Look, I realize that the massacres of Jews by the EG's predated the most significant spike in partisan warfare. I also understand that the "partisan" label used by the Olhendorfs and Jagers of the time was bogus, often comically so. However, what I am doing is proving that VFX's contention is still false, even if we fight on his terms - even if we do discuss the period where Jewish participation in partisan warfare was at its height, we still see nowhere near the same percentages as the ones you documented of EG victims. The fact that there was three years of difference separating the two is a coup de grace from the perspective of a debate.
I'm aware of what you think you're doing.

But, first, I have no idea why you want to do it. Second, what you think you are doing and what you are doing aren't the same thing. Debating on his terms is to confuse the issue: "the period where Jewish participation in partisan warfare was at its height," it was still not all that significant from the pov of the Soviet partisans. Jews were not the instigators of the communist partisan movement, they were not core to it, they were "often" not welcomed into it, Jews' participation was generally late coming to it - in Lithuania as we discussed after the Jewish communities had been wiped out - and relatively small. Again, to go back to the Baltic region, by fall 1941, when the great murder sweeps of the Germans were continuing, Jews were either dead, about the be killed, or in ghettos.

This is why I re-posted this - to remind you of how the Germans' were targeting victims in their sweeps and to take it out of the realm of speculation and moral right. I also think, as we've done in this thread, a micro-look at how the executions were planned, organized, and carried out is a richer historical approach than debating a non-existent point - accepting deniers' terms that Jews were core to the partisan movement.

As a result of the confusion you introduced, you're now debating Vietnam instead the history of the open-air shootings.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 10:44 am

Nessie wrote:. . . The very same people who are now happily trying to engage him in debate.....
Not sure if you mean Jeff_36 or me . . . with the exception of one aside, I am actually debating Jeff_36, which happens a lot! We were rudely interrupted, from my pov (Jeff_36 seems to have been debating both VFX and me, OTOH). I wanted to convey to Jeff_36 that I think he has this bolloxed up . . . and that his comments can lead to false impressions of the mobile units' operations and of the nature of the partisan movement in the East . . .
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 11:36 am

Jeff_36 wrote:
VFX wrote: Deutschland was being invaded morally, spiritually and physically by the Untermenschen.


I thought we hanged the last of your ilk at the NMT.
But VFX didn't participate in war crimes or genocide during WWII - and, further, not to quibble, but the last true believers in fascism were not executed after the Nuremberg trials. IMO we shouldn't be insinuating in here that fascists should be hanged - it's kind of a reverse Traynor to do so. Just my two cents.

(Good to have you back - so we can continue our running debates!)
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 2:27 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote: Jews were not the instigators of the communist partisan movement, they were not core to it, they were "often" not welcomed into it, Jews' participation was generally late coming to it - in Lithuania as we discussed after the Jewish communities had been wiped out - and relatively small.
I think that has been well established. I never disputed any of these facts. All I was pointing out was that these alleged "Jewish Gunslingers" were few in number and never dominated the partisan movement to the degree that VFX alleged, even later on in the war. Additionally - it is no secret that the partisan movements of 1941 were mostly isolated and localized in nature, consisting of abandoned Red Army solders and basically no Jews at all.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 2:41 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Nessie wrote:. . . The very same people who are now happily trying to engage him in debate.....
Not sure if you mean Jeff_36 or me . . . with the exception of one aside, I am actually debating Jeff_36, which happens a lot! We were rudely interrupted, from my pov (Jeff_36 seems to have been debating both VFX and me, OTOH). I wanted to convey to Jeff_36 that I think he has this bolloxed up . . . and that his comments can lead to false impressions of the mobile units' operations and of the nature of the partisan movement in the East . . .
If I may present for a moment in my defense ;)

I never saw myself as arguing with you. You summed up the timeline of Jewish participation better than I could have, and I have substantial knowledge of the demographic trends that you mentioned - I earlier pointed out that most partisan bands in the "hot zone" so to speak were predominantly Belorussian or Russian in composition. What I gathered from VFX was a contention that any Jewish participation in the partisan movement at any time served as a retroactive justification for the mass murders - a horrific argument. I thus sought to prove that the dominance that he mentioned was not present. I may have misread, apologies, his prose is a bit muddled at times.

Vietnam was just a side-note, nothing more - I just found it funny that he was making one set of arguments in one thread and a totally different set in another.

If Arad's recollections are any indication, the motivation for the surviving Jewish volunteers in 1943-1944 must have been extremely strong, as they regularly put up with antisemitic abuse from their fellow partisans. I have this theory that one saw all-Jewish units like Nokmim in Lithuania because the local Soviet partisans were not hospitable for Jewish members. The ones who did join, by several accounts on Dovid Katz's site, endured a fair share of taunting and isolation.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 2:49 pm

I'm just saying - I thought we loved to debate, from the air war to Eichmann :) - that throwing in whether partisan activity was justified confuses the issue, muddying the discussion of all the points we agree on.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 3:03 pm

Arad writes that the Soviets made conscious efforts to limit the number of Jews in partisan ranks in the Rudniki forest region of southern Lithuania. These efforts included the prohibition of any expansion of an existing family camp that operated in the area. The reason, reportedly, was a desire on part of the Soviets to attract more Lithuanian recruits, and the notion that the Lithuanians would have found the presence of Jews in the movement to be distasteful.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 3:04 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:I'm just saying - I thought we loved to debate, from the air war to Eichmann :) - that throwing in whether partisan activity was justified confuses the issue, muddying the discussion of all the points we agree on.
Ok, that we do :)

I confess that I threw that in, I have always admired resistance fighters in any country in WWII (with a few exceptions) and I thought VFX was full of {!#%@}.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Wed Sep 26, 2018 3:12 pm

Jeff_36 wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote:I'm just saying - I thought we loved to debate, from the air war to Eichmann :) - that throwing in whether partisan activity was justified confuses the issue, muddying the discussion of all the points we agree on.
Ok, that we do :)

I confess that I threw that in, I have always admired resistance fighters in any country in WWII (with a few exceptions) and I thought VFX was full of {!#%@}.
You are not alone in that assessment.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 3:20 pm

Jeff_36 wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote:I'm just saying - I thought we loved to debate, from the air war to Eichmann :) - that throwing in whether partisan activity was justified confuses the issue, muddying the discussion of all the points we agree on.
Ok, that we do :)

I confess that I threw that in, I have always admired resistance fighters in any country in WWII (with a few exceptions) and I thought VFX was full of {!#%@}.
He is, and I would guess you know where I stand on Jews who resisted the Nazis with arms :) or in other ways.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 4:21 pm

Put another way: I like your throwing it in their faces - but maybe in another thread!
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Wed Sep 26, 2018 9:34 pm

Jeff_36, here's a pertinent blog article at HC from 10 years ago by Jon Harrison on this very subject - quoting from a report of SS-Obersturmbannführer Eduard Strauch, KdS in Belorussia to von den Bach. The report is dated 25 July 1943 and concerns Kube's hesitations about the murder program targeting Jews in the East. Harrison wrote that at this time
Strauch sent a long report to his superior, von dem Bach (Nuremberg file NO-2662), in which he complained bitterly about the behaviour of the Generalkommissar of White Ruthenia, Wilhelm Kube. The report is reproduced in full at the Axis History Forum here. The report includes the following revealing paragraphs:
On numerous occasions Kube has said to me personally that Jews evacuated from the Reich could be spared without any problem since they do not understand the local language and would therefore not pose a danger in so far as their becoming involved in guerrilla activities was concerned.

I am convinced from the evidence that deep down Kube is opposed to our actions against the Jews. If he does not admit to this outwardly the only reason is his fear of the consequences. He is in agreement with actions against Russian Jews because he is able to appease his conscience by the fact that the majority of Russian Jews collaborate with the guerrillas.
As Harrison added,
Every false denier claim, from Butz downwards, that the Einsatzkommandos were 'just' killing partisans can be safely trashed using this one extract. It confirms what was already obvious to anyone who has read the Operational Situation Reports, such as those in this link, namely that Jews were killed purely on the basis of their assumed 'racial origin'.
Hint to deniers: that Nazi officials believed demon-images of Jews is not being contested - rather, the problem is that you don't get to commit mass murder because you have a delusional, paranoid view of Jews, Roma, or any other group of people. As an example of what I'm talking about take Harald Turner's 26 October 1941 letter in which Turner, chief of military administration in Serbia, ordered that Jews and Roma be seized as hostages and killed because, said Turner, "Jews and Gypsies [were] an element of insecurity and thus of endangerment to public order and safety."

Turner explained his rationale that the "Jewish element play a significant role in leading the gangs" [Serbian partisans] and "it is especially the Gypsies who are responsible for particular cruelties and for the intelligence service." As Wolfgang Wipperman comments, Turner provided no proof of such fantastical claims but would write on 29 August 1942 that Serbia had become "the only country in which the Jewish question and the Gypsy question [have been] solved." (Wipperman, in Kay & Sahel, eds, Mass Violence in Nazi-Occupied Europe, p 84)

Unfortunately for the Jews=partisans, Roma=cruel intelligent agents thesis, Tito's partisan movement would only grow in strength and numbers after the solution of the Jewish and "Gypsy" questions in Serbia. (see Sabrina Ramet, The Three Yugoslavias; Jozo Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia; Alexander Prusin, Serbia under the Swastika; and Tomislav Dulic, Utopias of Nation: Local Mass Killing in Bosnia & Herzegovina, 1941-42)
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:14 am

Nope National Socialism does not have any paranoia about Jews any more than Swedes have about Muslims now. This thinking is entirely your own misconstructs.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Thu Sep 27, 2018 1:18 pm

When deniers justify the mass shootings in the East on account of anti-Jewish paranoia, they tell us more about themselves than about the history of the period and German operations.

Turner's formulation "the only country in which the Jewish question and the Gypsy question [have been] solved" raises another question about deniers. What about the Sinti and Roma (so-called Gypsies)? Why, according to deniers, did the Germans include them in the mass executions which they conducted in Serbia, the occupied Soviet Union, and Birkenau?

If I've read deniers on the mass murder of the "Gypsies," I've forgotten what they say. As to the occupied East, and the present issues, I can only guess that they will tell us that the EMs which report on the executions of partisans, as they put it, were at the same time fabricated - the classic IFWF argument. And maybe that, like the Jews who were shot and gassed, the Sinti and Roma somehow deserved it, even though it didn't happen.

Or does the problem just not fit into deniers' general anti-Semitic obsessions?
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Thu Sep 27, 2018 6:04 pm

I think that someone in a discussion speaks of mass executions in the second paragraph has already got his mind set up and there is little point in discussion. Partisans were shot no Jude were gassed. There is no anti semetic obsession with us, only you: we do not care a toss about Jude one way or the other. Like all religions it is fake unlike a political enterprise which does adhere to policies of human welfare.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by BornAgainDisciple » Thu Sep 27, 2018 7:39 pm

Why to use word Jude? Why cannot use word Jewish or Jew?
Speaking of anti-Semitic obsession... Many of the present day Israelis are not of Semitic origin,
but of European origin. But somehow there seems to be general anti-Jewish mentality in some comments.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:03 pm

BornAgainDisciple wrote:Why to use word Jude? Why cannot use word Jewish or Jew?
Speaking of anti-Semitic obsession... Many of the present day Israelis are not of Semitic origin,
but of European origin. But somehow there seems to be general anti-Jewish mentality in some comments.
The same question was asked by a Zionist a short while ago. I find the word Jew demeaning and naturally use Jude. Semitic origin seems like another fantasy, but perhaps you can explain what you mean by this? We are not anti Jewish but anti corruption and anti liars. I am not suggesting that all Jude fit into that category at all, in fact most do not but there is a team of International players who seemingly use Jüdisches Erbe as a club card which caused the calamity of 1939 onwards: they are seemingly doing this today in Syria and elsewhere. As they say:
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Nessie » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:20 pm

BornAgainDisciple wrote:Why to use word Jude? Why cannot use word Jewish or Jew?
It is part of his trolling tactics. He makes up little nicknames for others, such as book boy, eggs and flipper. Not using someones own chosen name is a way of undermining someone.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by BornAgainDisciple » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:24 pm

Then just use English word Jewish, not Jude, Jood, Yid and so on.
Semitic origin is not fantasy but like I wrote, many present day Israelis are not of Semitic origin.
Some Palestians are though. There is lots of different Jewish sects and not just one or two.
BTW, not every Jewish person is a Zionist. Many Zionist groups are supposedly Christian.
Do these also belong to anti corruption and anti liars agenda?
Catholic church for example?
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:43 pm

BornAgainDisciple wrote:Then just use English word Jewish, not Jude, Jood, Yid and so on.
Semitic origin is not fantasy but like I wrote, many present day Israelis are not of Semitic origin.
Some Palestians are though. There is lots of different Jewish sects and not just one or two.
BTW, not every Jewish person is a Zionist. Many Zionist groups are supposedly Christian.
Do these also belong to anti corruption and anti liars agenda?
Catholic church for example?
My native language is Deutsch and I will use what I want. I have never demeaned any jüdische Leute and never will do nor use the words Yid, Kike and so on: people deserve respect and are given it. I do not know what you mean by Semitic Origin though there is a common mitochondrial dna thread that runs through all Jude. Being atheist I have probably less time for Christians than Juden; my best friends who are in the same political party as myself: sie sind jüdisch.
I find Christians totally corrupt due to raking billions of $ in on a total lie.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by BornAgainDisciple » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:53 pm

VFX wrote:there is a common mitochondrial dna thread that runs through all Jude.
It's not so black and white.
Some studies claim that even Hitler had this. Some even claim that he was a Rothschild.
Many of the ashkenazis (Germanic Jewish) don't share the darker features like stereotypical Jewish rabbis.
No, they are like Werner Goldberg - blond and blue eyed.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by VFX » Thu Sep 27, 2018 8:58 pm

BornAgainDisciple wrote:
VFX wrote:there is a common mitochondrial dna thread that runs through all Jude.
It's not so black and white.
Some studies claim that even Hitler had this. Some even claim that he was a Rothschild.
Many of the ashkenazis (Germanic Jewish) don't share the darker features like stereotypical Jewish rabbis.
No, they are like Werner Goldberg - blond and blue eyed.
I have no issues with Jewish people. My best friends are in the same political party and Jewish: yes blue eyed and blond and so on. I have issues with any people who lack integrity.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Mon Oct 01, 2018 2:06 am

putting this post in the correct thread . . . and also linking to a new piece by Sergey Romanov at HC on John Ball's claims about Babi Yar
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Balmoral95 » Mon Oct 01, 2018 2:16 am

VFX wrote:
BornAgainDisciple wrote:
VFX wrote:there is a common mitochondrial dna thread that runs through all Jude.
It's not so black and white.
Some studies claim that even Hitler had this. Some even claim that he was a Rothschild.
Many of the ashkenazis (Germanic Jewish) don't share the darker features like stereotypical Jewish rabbis.
No, they are like Werner Goldberg - blond and blue eyed.
I have no issues with Jewish people. My best friends are in the same political party and Jewish: yes blue eyed and blond and so on. I have issues with any people who lack integrity.
Like Dolfie, Onkel Joey, Onkel Hermann?

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Balmoral95 » Mon Oct 01, 2018 2:22 am

>"My best friends are in the same political party and Jewish"

Of course they are.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeff_36 » Wed Oct 03, 2018 12:21 am

VFX wrote: I have no issues with Jewish people. My best friends are in the same political party and Jewish: yes blue eyed and blond and so on. I have issues with any people who lack integrity.
You have been peddling vile canards about Russian Jews in every post of this thread.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Balmoral95 » Wed Oct 03, 2018 12:27 am

Jeff_36 wrote:
VFX wrote: I have no issues with Jewish people. My best friends are in the same political party and Jewish: yes blue eyed and blond and so on. I have issues with any people who lack integrity.
You have been peddling vile canards about Russian Jews in every post of this thread.
Well sure, the Ostjuden aren't the blond/blue type he finds acceptable... they're a little too Jewy-Jew to be acceptable in any way, shape or form.

I always wonder what these tossers' alleged Jew "best friends" really think of them... if they exist at all.

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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Oct 07, 2018 11:18 pm

Jon Harrison looks more deeply into denier claims that the Einsatzgruppen targeted only partisans, saboteurs, and Communists in "Agreements Made Before Operation Barbarossa to Target 'Communists and Jews' in the Balkans and Occupied Eastern Poland".
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Oct 14, 2018 3:04 am

"Juozas Aleksynas was born in Makrickai, Lithuania, in 1914. During World War II, he was a soldier in the Lithuanian 12th Self-Defense Battalion. While serving as an auxiliary to German forces, Aleksynas participated in several massacres of Jews in Belorussia in the autumn of 1941." Oral history interview - Credit: USHMM Collection, Witnesses, Collaborators, and Perpetrators: The Jeff and Toby Herr Testimony Initiative
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Tue Oct 23, 2018 12:40 pm

As well he should be, Werd is troubled by Roberto Muehlenkamp's series on Mattogno's claims about the Jäger report. This morning at Rodoh, on the charges of forgery, Werd writes
again it goes on in part2 in resolving alleged discrepancies Mattogno thinks he found, but I will stop here.

This argument from HC looks pretty good. This, and other ones, Mattogn and Rudolf certainly must contend with.
and
So again, there is no problem where Mattogno thinks there is one. This needs to be addressed by the revisionists.
The series to which Werd refers is the one which VFX/NSDAP (and montgomery) refused to read and comment on back in August and September when I linked to it and asked how revisionists can answer Muehlenkamp's arguments.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Tue Oct 23, 2018 3:06 pm

Phew, Werd is now opening the door a crack to his insane conspiracy theorizing - in this case that the test signatures against which Jäger's signature can be evaluated are, possibly, like the report also forged. Now we are back to hatstand crazy nonsense.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Fri Oct 26, 2018 1:21 pm

Werd continues to push Codoh-ites on points from Roberto's Jäger new report series: https://rodoh.info/forum/viewtopic.php? ... 10#p133784
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:26 am

Here is a summary I was able to pull together of German orders regarding security units and operations in the East, including also some indirectly related war orders and sources relevant to escalation of the mass killiings. What’s missing? Where did I goof up? The idea here is to “crowd source” this list. Because of the length, I will post this in three parts:

I. Orders, Guidelines, Regulations, Notes Pertaining to Period March 1941 through 21 June 1941 for German Security Operations during Barbarossa

3 March 1941
Hitler meeting with Jodl, chief of staff of the OKW, on guidelines for war against USSR
Hitler spoke of Jewish-Bolshevism, making Jews and communists the same, and said that its leading groups were to be removed:
The imminent campaign is more than just a battle of weapons: it also entails a conflict between two worldviews. . . . The Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia, the ‘suppressor’ of these peoples until now, must be removed. . . . It is out task to construct as quickly as possible with a minimum of German military power socialist state forms that are dependent on us. These tasks are so difficult that one can not burden the army with them.
(quoted in Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, pp 215-216; Arad, In the Shadow of the Red Banner: Soviet Jews in the War Against Nazi Gemany, p xxx)

13 March 1941
OKW directive on collaboration between Wehrmacht and SS in coming war
Jodl issued directive supplementary to directive no. 41, on “special responsibilities on behalf of the Führer” in the East assigned to RFSS in the “struggle . . . between two opposing political systems,” to prepare for political rule over USSR:
The Reichsführer SS has been given by the Führer certain special tasks within the operation zone of the Army: these stem from the necessity finally to settle the conflict between two opposing political systems.
(Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p 141; Arad, In the Shadow of the Red Banner: Soviet Jews in the War Against Nazi Gemany, p xxx)

17 March 1941
Hitler to army officers
Hitler told “the top officers of the army” that “the most brutal force is necessary” to undo the “intelligentsia” in the USSR:
The intelligentsia installed by Stalin must be destroyed. The leadership machine of the Russian empire must be defeated. In the Greater Russian area the use of the most brutal force is necessary.
(quoted by Longerich, Hitler’s Role in the Persecution of the Jews by the Nazi Regime)

26 March 1941
Heydrich meeting notes
Heydrich sent notes from a meeting he had on 26 March 1941, in preparation for the invasion of the USSR, to a select list of six men, with a point to include a seventh. The notes were marked “strictly confidential.” The recipients included: RFSS Himmler, Gestapo Müller, Walter Schellenberg (RSHA head of Counter-Espionage withing RSHA Office IV), Bruno Streckenbach (RSHA Office I head, Personnel), Otto Ohlendorf (head of RSHA Office III – SD-Inland), and Filbert (deputy chief RSHA Office VI – SD-Overseas). Müller’s name was annotated “also for Eichmann’s information.” The most junior recipitn was Filbert recipient; the annotation for his name (“for SS-Brif, Jost”) explains the situation, as Filbert’s boss, Jost, was by this time office chief in title whilst Filbert led the actual department work. Göring had requested from Heyrdich a short memo as explained below; Heydrich was instructed by Göring to include a change in Rosenberg’s responsibilities in regard to the points in his memo. Two key points of Heydrich’s note, which he signed, were as follows:
10. Regarding the solution to the “Jewish Question” I briefly reported to the Reichsmarschall and presented him with my draft, of which, with an alteration regarding the jurisdiction of Rosenberg, he approved and ordered resubmission.

11. The Reichsmarschall said to me, among other things, that in the event of an operation in Russia we should prepare a very short, 3-4 page briefing that the troops could get, about the dangerousness of the GPU organization, the political commissars, Jews, etc., so they more of less know whom they have to put up against the wall.
(Kay, The Making of an SS Killer: The Life of Alfred Filbert, 1905-1990, p 39)

See also below, 2 July 1941.

30 March 1941
Hitler to senior military leaders of Germany
Nearly 3 months before actual launching the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler spoke to 200 senior military officers. Halder, chief of OKH, took notes, which, noting their “colonial tasks” in the East, read in part:
Clash of two ideologies. Crushing denunciation of Bolshevism, identified with asocial criminality. . . . This is a war of destruction. . . . War against Russia. Extermination of the Bolshevist Commissars and the communist intelligentsia. . . . This is no job for the military courts. The individual troop commanders must know the issues at stake. They must be leaders in this fight. The troops must fight back with the methods with which they are attacked [before the war!]. Commissars and GPU men are criminals and must be dealt with as such. . . . This will be very different from the war in the west. In the east, harshness today means lenience in the future. Commanders must make the sacrifice of overcoming their personal scruples.
(Browning, Origins, p 217, quoting Halder’s diary ; Kay, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for the German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941, p 72)

Also from this speech:
Fight against Russia: Annihilation of the Bolshevik commissars and the communist intelligence. The new states must be Socialist states, but without an intelligence of their own. It must be prevented that a new intelligence comes into being. A primitive Socialist intelligence is sufficient. The fight must be conducted against the poison of disintegration. This is not a matter for military tribunals. The leaders of the troops must know what this is about. They must lead in the fight. The troops must defend themselves with the means by which they are attacked. Commissars and GPU-people are criminals and must be treated as such.

For this the troops need not come out of the hands of their leaders. The leader must issue his directives in consonance with the feelings of the troops. This fight is very much differentiated from the fight in the West. In the East harshness means mildness in the future. The leaders must require themselves to do the sacrifice of overcoming their considerations.
The phrase “the poison of disintegration” may be read as a typical Nazi characterization of the “activities” of Jews. See also 4 June 1941 note below, where “disintegrative worldview” is attributed to communists and Jews. As Jon Harrison has written , “For example, in Mein Kampf, Hitler had stated that the Jew was a ‘ferment of decomposition’” (p.447).

2 April 1941
agreement between Heydrich and OKH
Prior to Barbarossa, German operations in the Balkans took place. At the beginning of April 1941, an agreement between Heydrich and Quartermaster-General Wagner was reached giving the Security Police responsibility for measures against “Communists and Jews.”
(http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot. ... ation.html)

28 April 1941
“Regulation on Commitment of the Security Police and SD in units of the army“
From the Heydrich-Wagner agreement on collaboration of Security Police and the Wehrmacht in the East:
3. Collaboration between the Einsatzgruppen and/or Kommandos of the Security Police (Security Service) and the Commander in the Army Group Rear Area (to 1b): Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos of the Security Police (Security Service) will be installed in the army group rear area. They are subordinate to the commissioner of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service with the commander of the army group rear area and are subordinated to the latter with reference to marching orders, quarters, and rations.

They receive their technical instructions from the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service. . . .

The Einsatzgruppen and/or Kommandos are empowered to take executive measures concerning the civilian population within the scope of their missions, upon their own responsibility.

They are required to collaborate most closely with intelligence.
(Research Thread: The German Army and the Einsatzgruppen)

2 May 1941
meeting of State Secretaries on food supply in the East
Almost two months before Barbarossa, according to a memorandum found in General Thomas’s files after the war, a meeting of State Secretaries held 2 May 1941 dealt with issues of the occupation, the economy, and food provisioning.

The meeting participants based their thinking on a 6-12 Blitzkrieg-like campaign to defeat the Soviet Union. They concluded that
1.)The war can only continue to be waged if the entire Wehrmacht is fed from Russia during the third war year.
The impact of provisioning of the army from the conquered territory was projected:
2.) As a result, x million people will undoubtedly starve, if that which is necessary for us is extracted from the land.

In addition, Soviet industry was to be laid waste except where needed to supply Germany (according to Alex Kay, this meant exemption of “vehicle works, plants supplying iron, textiles from factories and . . . armaments concerns. Thus, only industrial sites which were of immediate use to Germany’s war effort were to be maintained.”)
(Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 123-126)

Thomas was to make a note after this meeting that included the following:
Ukraine – as agricultural surplus territory – be exploited as much as possible for industrial production . . . Moscow. The Moscow area, as agricultural deficit territory, is to be industrially exploited only in so far as the overall situation requires it. . . .

In broad outline, Thomas and other planners were conceiving of the conquered Soviet Union as including two great zones. One area, the black-soil zone, was the Soviet Union’s grain and crop producing region, centered in the Ukraine; here agricultural surpluses would be produced. The other area, the wooded zone comprising Moscow and Leningrad, was considered a deficit area, which needed to import food from surplus regions. In the planners’ thinking, oil production was to be maintained in the Caucasus, the deficit area around Moscow and Leningrad was to be underfed, with manufacturing there shut down. That “x millions” in the deficit zone would die as a result was taken for granted.
(Kay, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for the German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941, p 127)

13 May 1941
Barbarossa Jurisdiction Decree, removing soldiers who committed crimes against civilians from jurisdiction of military courts
This Führer decree made German soldiers immune from legal consequences for mistreatment of civilians:
Punishable offenses committed against enemy civilians do not, until further notice, come any more under the jurisdiction of the courts-martial and the summary courts-martial.
Romer (in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, p 75) quotes further from these guidelines:
Within the scope of their mission and upon their own responsibility the Sonderkommandos are empowered to take executive measures concerning the civilian population
on orders “from the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service.”

The decree was sent on 31 May 1941 to units that would carry out the German invasion of the USSR. (Romer, in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 75, 78)

Some key components of this order were:

Imposition of different rules for the East based on Nazi political-ideological preconceptions and a predetermined view of the enemy as deserving especially harsh measures: “The further extension of the eastern theater of operations, the battle strategy conditioned thereby, and the peculiar qualities of the enemy, confront the courts of the armed forces with problems,” which required, in the Nazis’ view, removing legal consequences for important aspects of troops’ behavior in the East.

A view of civilians that they constituted the enemy, an ironic position in that many of the nationalities in the occupied territories chafed under Soviet rule and under other circumstances might have welcomed a chance at liberation: “the troops defend themselves relentlessly against any threat from the enemy population.”

Permission for officers to take actions against civilians, including the death penalty, based on suspicion alone and without even pretense of a trial or investigation of any sort; granting of power of life and death for civilians to front-line officers: “persons suspected of an offense will be brought immediately before an officer. This officer will decide whether they are to be shot.” And: “Extreme caution is indicated in assessing the credibility of statements made by enemy civilians.”

Authorization of punitive measures against villagers for attacks with which they were not involved and because those carrying out attacks were not known: “Against localities from which troops have been attacked in or treacherous manner, collective coercive measures be applied immediately upon the order of an officer of the rank of at least battalion etc., commander, if the circumstances do not permit a quick identification of individual perpetrators.”

The actual prohibition of the use of law or courts in most cases of the apprehension of civilians: “It is expressly forbidden to detain suspects in order to transfer them to the courts after the reinstatement of jurisdiction over indigenous population.”

Exemption for troops from obeying law with regard to civilians, who were to be regarded as the enemy: “1. With regard to offenses committed against enemy civilians by members of the armed forces and its employees, prosecution is not obligatory even if the deed is simultaneously a military violation or crime.”

Justification for illegal measures in the East based on a Nazified revision of German history; the making of Bolshevism to be a mortal enemy of the Germans, reinforcing the presumed need for a war of annihilation against the Soviets on the basis of ideology: “2. When judging such deeds, it must be borne in mind, whatever the circumstances, that the collapse in 1918, the subsequent suffering of the German people and the fight against national socialism which cost the blood of innumerable supporters of the movement, were caused primarily by Bolshevist influence and that no German has forgotten this.”

Allowance for troops to commit atrocities against civilians – and reservation of courts-martials only for actions that threatened German military discipline or actions that involved sexual activity or other affronts to German ideas of morality: “In the case of offenses against indigenous inhabitants, the judicial authority will order a court martial only if maintenance of discipline or security of the troops call for such a measure. This applies for instance to serious offenses based on lack of sexual restraint, or resulting from a criminal tendency, or indicating that the troops are threatening to become out of hand. As a rule offenses resulting in the senseless destruction of billets, stores or other captured material to the disadvantage of our forces will not be judged more leniently.” A supplemental order reinforced this point (Letter From Defendant Lehmann to Defendant Warlimont's Office, 4/28/1941, Transmitting Lehmann's Draft of Barbarossa Jurisdiction Order, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1951. pp. 1121-1123.): “II: 1. Military law and its enforcement agencies serve primarily the enforcement of discipline.”

According to Felix Romer, “The most consequential innovation of the Jurisdiction Decree remained, however, the introduction of executions without legal proceedings.”
(Romer in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 75-76)

According to Kevin Jon Heller, the Barbarossa Jurisdiction Order was held by the court in the NMT Hostage Tribunal to be prima facie illegal because “the order categorized ‘partisans’ in such an overbroad manner. . . . For example, the order authorized the summary execution of ‘[e]very civilian who impedes or incites others to impede the German Wehrmacht,’ a criterion that ‘clearly opens the way for arbitrary and bloody implementation.’”
(Heller, The Nuremberg Military Tribunal and the Origins of International Law, pp 209-210)

Romer concurs: “The break with international law [regarding anti-partisan actions] consisted above all in German reprisals from the outset being directed not only against irregulars but also too often toward uninvolved villagers, civilians who had been picked up or dispersed Red Army soldiers, who were declared in arbitrary acts of substitution to be ‘partisan suspects,’ ‘partisan helpers,’ or other ‘suspicious elements’ and called to account for ‘the increasing precariousness’ of the occupied territories.”
(Romer, in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, p 84; http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=62192)

19 May 1941
Guidelines for the Behavior of the Troops in Russia
Special Order no. 1 supplementing Directive no. 21 laid down “ruthless and vigorous measures against Bolshevik inciters, guerrillas, saboteurs, Jews and the complete elimination of all active and passive resistance” and commanded troops to support such measures.
(Romer in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, p 75; footnote 3 here: https://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot ... html#_ftn3)

Harrison writes that the Guidelines for the Troops shows that Jews were not to be “shot ‘as Jews’ because . . . Jews were not merged with Communists in these policies but were placed alongside them as a group with equal but distinct enemy characteristics whose origins were racial not political: a Gegenrasse.”

21 May 1941
directive of Himmler “Concerning Assignment of Higher SS and Police Leaders in the Army Group Rear Area”
To carry out assigned tasks, in late May, a month before Barbarossa, Himmler subordinated the Einsatzgruppen to the HSSPFs for the purpose of carrying out Himmler’s “special orders”:
In agreement with the Commander in Chief of the Army, I have provided for Higher SS and Police Leaders for the sphere of political administration for the execution of the special orders given to me by the Fuehrer.

For the duration of the commitment of the Higher SS and Police Leaders in the army group rear area, I am laying down the following instructions with the assent of the Commander in Chief of the Army:

1. The Higher SS and Police Leader, with his commanding staff, is subordinated as far as marching orders, rations, and quarters are concerned to the commander of the respective army group rear area. The SS and Police troops and special task forces of the Security Police are subordinated to the Higher SS and Police Leader for executing the missions assigned by me directly.

The Higher SS and Police Leader is to inform the commander of the army group rear area from time to time concerning the missions assigned to him by me.

The commander of the army group rear area is empowered to give the Higher SS and Police Leader instructions which are necessary to avoid disturbing operations and missions of the army. They take precedence over all other instructions.
23 May 1941
Hunger Plan
By 23 May 1941 the economic thinking about occupied USSR was summarized in what historians call the Hunger Plan. According to this document, the per capita consumption, on average, of grain and potatoes in the Soviet Union was to be reduced by 12% to free up 8.7 million tons of grain for use by the Germans. This meant the food surpluses from the black-earth, surplus zone would not be delivered to the wooded, deficit zone around Moscow and Leningrad (food would continue to go to the oil-producing areas).

Even Goebbels made a diary entry on the logic of the economic plan for the East:
If only this year’s harvest is good. And then we want to line our pockets in the East.
According to Kay,
These tactics could have only one outcome: the starvation of large sections of the Soviet population.

The 23 May document explained that
Many tens of millions of people in this territory will become superfluous and will die or must emigrate to Siberia. Attempts to rescue the population there from death through starvation by obtaining surpluses from the black earth zone can only be at the expense of provisioning Europe. They prevent the possibility of Germany holding out till the end of the war, they prevent Germany and Europe from resisting the blockade. With regard to this, absolute clarity must reign.

Under this plan, food surpluses extracted from Soviet territory would provide for about two-thirds of the Wehrmacht’s need – that is, 3 million men – without having to disrupt the German economy. Surpluses left after feeding the troops would be diverted mostly to Germany with leftovers going to areas in the occupied USSR where industry was maintained.

This plan, according to Kay, “received the explicit ‘approval of the highest authorities’.”
(Kay, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for the German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941, pp 133-139)

29 May 1941
propaganda guidelines on pogroms - presentation
Georg Leibbrandt of the East Ministry, presented “political guidelines for propaganda” at an inter-departmental meeting:
It is certain that the entire population will welcome the fact that we regard the Jews of course as the main culprits. The Jewish Question can be solved to a significant degree by allowing the population a free hand for a certain time after the control of the territory is established. . . . In a word, it is probably advisable to leave the population itself to settle its accounts with the Jewish-Bolshevik oppressors initially, and then after gathering more detailed knowledge to deal with the remaining oppressors.
(Dieckmann in Barkan, Cole & Struve, Shared History - Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet Occupied Poland, 1939-1941, p 366)

My assumption is that Leibbrandt was presenting at this time Rosenberg’s Secret Reich Business no. 4 (spring 1941 – no date), which outlined early instructions on propaganda for the invasion of Soviet Union, calling for the press to emphasize that the USSR was under “a group of Jewish criminal despots” and that local actions (given “free rein”) against Jews would be necessary to solving Jewish question in the East:
1) Liberation from Bolshevism and Jewry. The propaganda must again and again emphasize that the German army comes as a liberator from Bolshevism and from Jewry and bears no hostility toward the population [see notes for 2 May 1941, 23 May 1941, 12-15 June 1941, and 16 June 1941!], which, on the contrary, is to be brought out of hardship and misery into a decent existence. . . . 2. Struggle against Jews and Bolsheviks. . . . [N]ot every member of the Communist Party is to be automatically regarded as a criminal. . . . The people itself will deal with the real oppressors, for it should be generally assumed that the population, especially in the Ukraine, will proceed to large-scale Jewish pogroms and murders of Communist functionaries. In short, it would be advisable to leave the reckoning with the Bolshevist-Jewish oppressors in the hands of the population itself in the initial phase and to attend to the remaining oppressors after further appraisal. . . .
(Matthäus & Bajohr, eds, The Political Diary of Alfred Rosenberg and the Onset of the Holocaust, pp 374-375; Beorn, The Holocaust in Eastern Europe: At the Epicenter of the Final Solution, pp 33, 59)

4 June 1941
Guidelines for troops at divisional level
In early June, guidelines for the behavior of troops in the USSR were prepared for dissemination at the outset of Barbarossa. These guidelines instructed German soldiers that
Bolshevism is the deadly enemy of the national socialist German people. This disintegrative worldview and its carriers must be combated by Germany. This struggle demands ruthless and energetic measures against bolshevist agitators, guerillas, saboteurs, Jews, and complex elimination of any active or passive resistance.

(quoted in Browning, pp 222-223, where it is noted that these categories of the enemy were to be shot on sight by units of Einsatzgruppen or of the army)

Note that Jews were called out as a separate category. As Beorn notes, being a Jew is not a behavior parallel to sniping, for example; here “Jews were thus explicitly targeted as racial enemies to be eliminated by the military regardless of their behavior.”
(Beorn, Marching into Darkness, p 52)

6 June 1941
Kommissarbefehl (Commissar Order)
Another pre-Barbarossa order focused on political commissars attached to the Red Army and how German units were to treat them. The order
instructed the troops that the uniformed political commissars who accompanied the Red Army were to be shot out of hand by frontline troops, and if encountered in the rear areas were to be turned over directly to the Einsatzgruppen for similar treatment.

Thus, the order
in one stroke explicitly authorized an abandonment of the laws of war and encouraged close cooperation [of Army with] the SD . . . The Commissar Order stated that “political representatives and commissars are to be eliminated” and that “the decision rests with an officer of disciplinary power whether that person is to be eliminated. Identification as political functionary is sufficient proof.” . . . Through its vague language, it also left the door open for a dangerously broad interpretation of “enemies.”

(Beorn, Marching into Darkness: The Wehrmacht and the Holocaust in Belarus, p 53)

According to Romer, the order was
directed at those Soviet political officers who were integrated into the Red Army to supervise the units. The central provision stated that all political commissars . . . falling into German captivity were to be segregated ‘already on the battlefield’ from the remaining prisoners of war and subsequently to be executed promptly: “These commissars are not to be recognized as soldiers; the protection due prisoners of war under international war does not apply to them. Once they have been separated out, they are to be finished off.”
(Romer in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 76-77)

The Commissar Order called for troops to engage in a murder program in accord with Nazi ideology, racial assumptions about the East and its people, and Hitler’s announced goal of the annihilation of Bolshevism. It had features in common with Operation Tannenberg, which we’ve discussed upthread and which similarly targeted the Polish intellectual and ruling groups during the early Polish occupation. As Hitler told Halder and Wagner, “The intelligentsia put in by Stalin must be exterminated.”
(from Halder’s diary, quoted in Browning, Origins, p 217)

The Commissar Order was circulated on 8 June with further dissemination to division commanders during 12-19 June; these divisional commanders generally informed NCO’s only on eve of attacks.
(Romer, in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 76-77)

The order stated:
In the struggle against Bolshevism, we must not assume that the enemy’s conduct will be based on principles of humanity or international law. In particular, hate-inspired, cruel, and inhuman treatment of prisoners of war can be expected on the part of all grades of political commissars, who are the real leaders of the resistance. . . . 1. To show consideration of these elements during this struggle or to act in accordance with international rules of war is wrong and endangers both are own security and the rapid pacification of conquered territory. 2. Political commissars have initiated barbaric, Asiatic methods of warfare. Consequently, they have to be dealt with immediately and with maximum severity. As a matter of principle they will be shot at once whether captured during operations or otherwise showing resistance.

(quoted in Browning, Origins, pp 220-221)

With these provisions, the order justified contravention of international law and the ”principles of humanity”(!) by decreeing illegal executions on the basis of anticipated behavior by all political commissars – a determination reached on the basis of ideology even before the fighting that would involve the Red Army commenced.

12-15 June 1941
Himmler meeting at Wewelsburg with SS leadership and HSSPFs for the East
Himmler discussed with his top leaders his concept for demographic reordering in the East with expectation of 30 million deaths among Russians (building on Wehrmacht meeting of 2 May projecting "x millions" of deaths in the region due to occupation; also late May "many tens of millions" - context: Hunger Plan). Himmler said:
It is a question of existence, thus it will be a racial struggle of pitiless severity, in the course of which 20 to 30 million Slavs and Jews will perish through military actions and crises of food supply.
Shortly after this meeting, Himmler would assign creation of Generalplan Ost to Konrad Meyer, one version of which, according to Browning, “would call for the expulsion of 31 million Slavs into Siberia.”
(Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers, p 23)

16 June 1941
Grune Mappe (Green File)
A more widely distributed plan, dubbed the Grüne Mappe (Green File, after the folder in which it was kept), was issued about a week before the invasion of the Soviet Union. About 1,000 copies of this document were disseminated to various Third Reich leaders.

The Green File said:
According to the orders issued by the Fuhrer, all measures are to be taken which are necessary to bring about the immediate and most extensive exploitation of the occupied territories for the benefit of Germany.
Kay explains that the Green File held that “winning ‘for Germany’ of as much as possible in the way of foodstuffs and mineral oil was the ‘main economic aim of the campaign’”; doing so would ensure that troops were fed from the occupied territory, which would relieve transport issues and ease the overall food situation. However, “the cities of Leningrad and Moscow and the territory eastwards of the latter constituted a ‘difficult problem’ . . . particularly as the two cities required substantial food surpluses” about which further instructions were to be issued as the war evolved. The guidelines also foresaw the “breakdown in industrial production” in north and central Russia and the quick demise of the region’s industrial capability.
(Kay, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for the German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941, pp 164-165)

The underpinnings of these policies – which focused on diversion of food and industrial output to Germany and reduction of the Slavic population – were explained in a further note from Herbert Backe of Reich Ministry for Food and Agriculture, this note issued 1 June and known as the 12 Commandments. The 11th Commandment, justifying the policy of starvation of Slavs, stated that
The Russian has already endured poverty, hunger, and frugality for centuries. His stomach is elastic, hence no false sympathy. Do not attempt to apply the German standard of living as your yardstick . . .

(quoted in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, pp 111-113)

In late June, the War and Armaments Office issued another report, which explained,
The main reason for the operation against Russia lies without doubt in the pressure on German’s supreme leadership to broaden at all costs the economic basis of Germany’s prosecution of the war.

(quoted in Kay, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for the German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941, p 165)

The economic and food planning thus committed the Germans, and the Wehrmacht, to exploitation of the conquered territory at the cost of what were anticipated to be the deaths of many millions of Russians (after the war, Bach-Zelewski gave the figure 30 million), mostly by starvation, as provisioning was reduced or cut off and the economic base was destroyed. As Beorn explains,
Together, these documents outlined the planned systematic starvation, deportation, expropriation, and depopulation of the occupied East in preparation for the Germanic settlers that Himmler imagined would occupy the region.

(Beorn, Marching into Darkness, p 51)

(The German food plans, envisaging mass starvation throughout the East, extended to POW policy: In the short Blitzkrieg campaign large numbers of Soviet prisoners would be taken quickly; food was not to be diverted for these POWs who would thus also be starved and would constitute part of the x millions expected to die under German occupation.)

17 June 1941
Heydrich briefing of Einsatzgruppen leaders in Berlin and Pretzsch
No written records of these briefings exist but Heydrich later summarized his orders in writing on 29 June and 2 July as discussed below, in the post-Barbarossa section.

According to Kay, in line with other scholars,
It was most likely here [in the Berlin meeting], on this day, that the EG and EK chiefs were expressly informed that their commission in the area of operations would involve the decimation of Soviet Jewry. . . . Heydrich had probably specified that the Jewish intelligentsia and as many male Jews of military service age as possible be killed, since these groups were regarded by the German leadership as likely Communist activists and potential partisans.

Kay’s argument is that the orders given to the EG leaders most likely conformed to the written orders issued by the OKW to Wehrmacht troops as well as Heydrich’s 2 July 1941 “written communication” to the HSSPFs (who had not been present at the 17 June meeting but were to collaborate with the EG leadership) – where Heydrich targeted among others “Jews in party and state positions.” Kay makes two points about this: by mentioning Jews at all, Heydrich prioritized liquidation of Jews; also, by the nature of his list of targets (and the use of “etc.”), Heydrich encouraged his commanders to use initiative and go beyond the literal orders (for example, Roma were not mentioned at the outset but became victims during the summer).

Heydrich also seems to have mentioned pogroms – they were not to but stopped but rather encouraged and “directed” appropriately. Harrison at HC writes that
Two days later, Heydrich's Einsatzbefehl Nr. 2 made it clear he was referring here to pogroms carried out by ethnic Poles. His order was also enclosed in EM 10 . . . preceded by the line . . . which included the revelation that this targeting had been suggested by the "17th Army Command" (presumably Stülpnagel), thereby demonstrating the extent of Wehrmacht collusion. EM 10 also included a note from Einsatzgruppe C in Vilnius that EK 7a had initiated action against “Communists and Jews.” This action was subsequently handed over to EK 9, which was led by Filbert, a man fiercely devoted to Heydrich's worldview and mission.
(http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot. ... ation.html; for more on Filbert, see Kay, The Making of an SS Killer: The Life of Alfred Filbert, 1905-1990)

See further discussion at notes for 29 June 1941 and 2 July 1941 in next section.

21 June 1941
Guidelines for the Behavior of the Troops distributed, see 4 June 1941 note above
As discussed, these guidelines were distributed to troops on the eve of the invasion of the USSR.
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:39 am

II. Orders, Guidelines, Regulations, Notes, Reports Concerning German Security Operations in the East, Pertaining to Period 22 June 1941 through August 1941

27 June 1941
Heydrich order to Einsatzgruppen chiefs
Heydrich ordered his Einsatzgruppen commanders to inform the HSSPFs of the “basic instructions regarding the deployment of the Security Police and SD.”
(Dieckmann in Shared History - Divided Memory, p 368, Dieckmann interprets this instruction as a written version of previous oral instructions which the SS leaders needed in their interactions with Wehrmacht commanders; two weeks later, for example, the Ic for the Kommandostab of the RFSS would write “Based on experience to date, cooperation between these Einsatzkommandos and the Wehrmacht is going smoothly.” Report of 16 July 1941, referring to inspection visit to Kaunas and Vilnius of 11-12 July, Dieckmann, in Shared History - Divided Memory, p 369)

28 June 1941
KTB and Quartermaster notes about the situation in Lithuania
Into the KTB was entered:
4. Yesterday and today, massive pogrom against the Jews in Kovno. Yesterday 1,500 Jews shot by “partisans”; 70 Jewish snipers killed. Tonight about 1,000 Jews shot. (figures are from the field command).
On the same day, the KTB for AOK 16 recorded that Stahlecker met with the chief of staff of the German 16th Army, discussing
a) setting up the new government, decisions in Berlin. b) takeover of the Security Service, putting into uniform of the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police. c) avoidance of open pogroms against the Jews on the streets.
And the next day, a report of the Senior Quartermaster of the 16th Army noted:
The violent attacks by the Lithuanian freedom movement against the communists and Jews have been halted. Further executions are being carried out under the supervision of the SS leader in Kovno.
(Dieckmann in Shared History – Divided Memory, p 367)

29 June 1941
Heydrich order to heads of Einsatzgruppen and RSHA officials
Heydrich sent to the Einsatzgruppen commanders a telegram reminder of verbal instructions give he’d given them in Berlin on 17 June 1941 (“recall . . . my remarks made orally on 17 June in Berlin”), in this case encouraging his men not to oppose but to instigate locals in pogroms, among them anti-Jewish activists, and in “self-cleansing efforts”; in fact, he said, “self-defense circles” should be encouraged and supported “without leaving a trace.” Longerich explains:
We have two documents written by Heydrich which are based upon these verbal instructions. Heydrich's note to the heads of the Einsatzgruppen of 29 June referred to the previously distributed order to foster "self-cleansing efforts" (Selbstreinigungsbestrebungen), i.e. pogroms of the Jewish population. These "self-cleansing efforts" by anti-communist or anti-Jewish groups in the area to be occupied, according to Heydrich's instructions, were "not to be hindered", rather, these efforts should be initiated but this should be done "without leaving a trace", intensified, and when necessary "steered in the correct direction". In a further note dated 2 July, Heydrich informed the Higher SS and Police Leaders—i.e. Himmler's highest regional representatives in the areas which were to be occupied—about "the most important instructions by me to the Wehrmacht and the commandos of the Security Police and the SD". Here it was stated once again that "self-cleansing efforts" (Selbstreinigungsbestrebungen) in the areas to be occupied were not to be hindered, but that on the contrary, they were to be encouraged—but without leaving a trace.
Heydrich:
I wish to call your attention once more to the following: 1) The attempts by local anti-Communist or anti-Jewish circles to engage in cleansing activities within the territories now to be occupied should not be hindered in any way. On the contrary, they must be implemented, and intensified when necessary, though without leaving a trace, and directed onto the right path. But this should be done in such a manner that the local 'self-defence circles' cannot later refer to orders or any political assurances given. Since for obvious reasons such a course of action is possible within the initial period of military occupation, the Einsatzgruppen and special task forces of the Security Police [SP] With reference to my oral instructions on 17 June in Berlin, I wish to call your attention once more to the following: 1) The attempts by local anti-Communist or anti-Jewish circles to engage in cleansing activities within the territories now to be occupied should not be hindered in any way. On the contrary, they must be implemented, and intensified when necessary, though without leaving a trace, and directed onto the right path. But this should be done in such a manner that the local 'self-defence circles' cannot later refer to orders or any political assurances given. Since for obvious reasons such a course of action is possible within the initial period of military occupation, the Einsatzgruppen and special task forces of the Security Police [SP] and Security Service [SD] must, in cooperating with the military offices, strive to move in as quickly as possible (at least into the newly occupied territories) with an advance party so that they can carry out what is required.
(Longerich, The Systematic Character of the National Socialist Policy for the Extermination of the Jews; Dieckmann in Shared History – Divided Memory, p 363; Browning, Origins, p 228; https://training.ehri-project.eu/sites/ ... 1941_0.pdf)

30 June 1941
Himmler and Heydrich visit to Grodno
After their visit to Grodno, the RFSS and the SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei
ordered Einsatzgruppe-B “to intensify” killing operations. The next day Heyrich would send a formal rebuke for lack of progress and poor initiative to Nebe, chief of EG-B ,in the form of a communication to all four Einsatzgruppen chiefs. According to Nebe in a resulting report to Berlin, “only 96 Jews” had been executed in Grodno and Lida when commandos of EG-B came into the area: “Nebe announced that he had accordingly issued the order ‘to considerably intensify’ shootings in the area.” A return visit on 9 July would later confirm that that EG-B had complied and had gotten on track: “The activities of all commandos have developed satisfactorily. First of all, the liquidations which are now occurring daily in ever greater measure are functioning well. The enforcement of the necessary liquidations is in any case ensured for all events.”).
(Longerich, Himmler, p 525; Kay, The Making of an SS Killer: The Life of Alfred Filbert, 1905-1990 pp 46-48; Longerich, The Systematic Character of the National Socialist Policy for the Extermination of the Jews)

2 July 1941
Heydrich special directive (Einsatzbefehl No. 2 ) to HSSPFs
In Heydrich's 2 July 1941 special directive, the section called “Execution” said that “Jews who were party members or working in government service as well as other radical elements” were among those to be executed by German security units. This directive to the HSSPFs reiterated Heydrich’s earlier instruction, sent to the Einsatzgruppen chiefs, regarding self-cleansing efforts (pogroms) and now identified which people should be “executed.”

Heydrich explained his guidelines as aimed at a “short-term goal,” which was political-security pacification of the region in order to prepare for long-term economic exploitation.

The list of those targeted for execution called out Jews in a special way in that all state and party functionaries are listed, which would include Jews serving in such capacity but the list reiterates “Jews in party and state functions”:
To be executed are all functionaries of the Comintern (as well as all professional Communist politicians), the higher middle and radical lower functionaries of the Party, the Central Committee, the district and regional committees, people's commissars, Jews in party and state functions, other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins and agitators etc insofar as they are not required in an individual case or no longer needed for providing political or economic information of special importance for further measures by the Security Police or for the economic reconstruction of the occupied territories.
(Dieckmann in Shared History – Divided Memory, pp 363-364; http://www.hdot.org/en/trial/judgement/06-6.html; Browning, Origins, p 228)

Early extermination actions, says Lower, targeted “adult male Jews in party and state positions and other so-called radical elements,” in keeping with early German operational instructions, paraphrasing Heydrich's 2 July 1941 written Einsatzbefehl for HSSPFs. SD officers identified such males, separated them out, and shot them. During this early period, Lower also describes the encouragement of pogroms under Heydrich's instructions; she explains how Wehrmacht propaganda units worked toward this end and how “reprisal” pogroms, on the pretext of the identity of Jews and NKVD, were successfully brought about L'viv, Luts'k, and other cities.
(Lower, “The ‘reiblungslose’ Holocaust? The German Military and Civilian Implementation of the ‘Final Solution’ in Ukraine, 1941-1944,” pp 237-245 and 253-255, in Feldman & Seibel, Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business and the Organization of the Holocaust)

2 July 1941
early Ereignismeldungen – mini case study
Einsatzgruppe B reported that
The 17th Army Command has suggested the use first of all of the anti-Jewish and anti-Communist Poles living in the newly-occupied areas for self-cleansing activities

and stated that
As for the Polish intelligensia and others, decisions can be taken later, unless there is a special reason for taking action in individual cases considered to be dangerous.
It is therefore obvious that such Poles need not be included in the cleansing action, especially as they are of great importance as elements to initiate pogroms and for obtaining information. (This depends, of course, on local conditions.)
On 3 July, in the same vein, in EM 12 Einsatzgruppe A reported that “Pogroms have been started" in Riga. A day later, in EM 13 it was reported that "Pogroms are being initiated" in Grodno. EM 24, July 16: “400 Jews were killed during pogroms in Riga, since the arrival of EK 2; 300 by the Latvian auxiliary police and partly by our units.”

7 July 1941
radio broadcast by Frtizsche
In his broadcast Fritzsche “depicted Barbarossa as a war in which ‘culture, civilization, and human decency make a stand against the diabolical principle of a sub-human world’ (3064-PS, NCA, vol. V, p.879).”
(Harrison, op cit)

8 July 1941
von Leeb and von Roques discussion
The two Wehrmacht commanders – von Leeb, Army Group North, and von Roques, Army Group North Rear Area – had a discussion in which
Roques . . . complains about the wholesale shooting of Jews in Kovno (thousands) by local Lithuanian Schutzverbande at the instigation of the German police. We have no control over these measures. Roques aptly supposed that the Jewish Question could hardly be solved in this manner. It would most reliably be solved by sterilizing all Jewish males.

(Foster, in Marrus, ed, The Nazi Holocaust. Part 3: The "Final Solution", Volume 2, p 497)

11 July – early August 1941
Pripet Marshes – escalation case study
Harrison writes:
One of the most important moments of escalation . . . was the Pripet marshes campaign which Himmler personally instigated in late July 1941 using the SS Cavalry Brigade under his own ultimate command. On July 11, Montua passed on an order by the HSSPF that male Jews aged between 17 and 45 were to be shot as looters. This reflected Himmler's belief that the Soviets had resettled criminals into the marshes. On July 27, Himmler's Kommandosonderbefehl specified that people who were “racially and humanly inferior” were to be shot if they were suspected of supporting the partisans; their villages were to be burned down and the women and children removed. By August 1st, this had become an order from Himmler to kill the women, but the means of killing were ambiguous: “All Jews must be shot. Drive Jewish women into the swamps.” Lombard passed on this order to his brigade, stating that “No male Jew stays alive, no residual family in the villages.” The killing reports specified “looters,” showing that the guiding “a priori” assumption was still Jewish criminality rather than documented partisan activity:

"Jewish looters were shot. Only a few craftsmen who were working in repair shops of the Wehrmacht were left behind. To drive women and children into the swamps did not have the desired effect as the swamps were not deep enough [for them] to sink. In a depth of 1 metre there was solid ground (possibly sand) in most cases so that sinking [bodies] was not possible."

Pieper cites a perpetrator statement that conveys the context in which the killings were understood:

"They were shot because they were Jews. There cannot have been any other reason from my point of view. It is out of the question that they supported the partisans or were partisans themselves. I don’t know anything about Jews resisting the German troops at all. According to my observations they always were friendly and loyal. And most of them were women and children down to the smallest baby. With them, too, there were no exceptions made [and they all were killed]."

The racial underpinning of this action shows that the phrases “looters” and “support for the partisans” were used as cover for shooting Jews “because they were Jews.” Some shooters may have reassured themselves that they will killing Jews for military reasons, but the overall pattern was an escalation that encompassed all Jews regardless of any rational basis for defining them as looters or partisan colluders. The bogus nature of the partisan warfare excuse is shown by the fact that, when Fegelein reported on the unit's killings in the two-week period from late July, it recorded 13,788 dead “plunderers” against 714 prisoners captured.

. . . The Germans killed partisans but they killed far larger numbers of Jews “as Jews” because they believed the Jews were the racial root of the enemy and had to be killed on racial grounds. . . . Some shooters may have reassured themselves that they were killing Jews for military reasons, but the overall pattern was an escalation that encompassed all Jews regardless of any rational basis for defining them as looters or partisan colluders. In addition, Jews and partisans [Freischaerler] were named separately in some reports. For example, the report for 28.7 to 3.8 stated, “3,000 Juden und Freischaerler erschossen.” . . .
(http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot. ... n-his.html)

Himmler’s Pripet order after his visit to Baranovichi:
All Jews must be shot. Jewish women to be driven into the marshes [Pripet]
(written order supplementing oral orders of the period, to SS Calvary Brigade) (note: "all Jews" - men - in keeping with expansive early verbiage but clarifying the upper limit)

17 July 1941
Operational Order no. 8 on annihilation of racially inferior captives (including Jews) in the POW camps; assigned to units of RSHA and SD in cooperation with Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht was expected to
free itself from all those elements among the prisoners of war considered Bolshevik driving forces. The special situation of the Eastern Campaign therefore demands special measures which are to be carried out free from bureaucratic and administrative influence and with a willingness to accept responsibility. While so far the regulations and orders concerning prisoners of war were based solely on military considerations, now the political objective must be attained, which is to protect the German nation from Bolshevik inciters and forthwith take the occupied territory strictly in hand.
(quoted here)

mid-July and after, 1941
escalation authorizations
According to Lower,
In mid July 1941, SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln authorized the killing of women during security operations planned for the area of Novohrad-Volvns'kyy (dated 25 July 1941). At the end of July, Seventh Army Commander von Stülpnagel defined the procedure for carrying out collective reprisal actions, specifying that Jews should be the target, even Jewish youths. . . .

As in the case of pogroms instigated by the Germans, the actions here depended on the supposed equation of Jews to partisans or other subversive elements; but Stülpnagel's guidelines went further and projected more widespread killing of Jews: he said that “local commanders,” writes Lower of the guidelines, “should not incarcerate hostages to have them on hand for future reprisal actions because ‘there will be reason to kill them soon enough.’” At the same time, Jeckeln exempted his officers from seeking approval for such killing actions beforehand telling them that when time made pre-notification difficult, a post-action report would suffice. Lower also notes that Heydrich's 17 July order called for killing of all male Jews held prisoner, not just those initially targeted.
(Lower, “The ‘reiblungslose’ Holocaust? The German Military and Civilian Implementation of the ‘Final Solution’ in Ukraine, 1941-1944,” p 239, in Feldman & Seibel, Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business and the Organization of the Holocaust)

20-27 July 1941
intelligence report
Rudolf May (counter-intelligence officer Ic of the Kommandostab of the RFSS), following a tour of the Baltic region, reported that he had doubts that
the Jewish problem could eventually be solved solely by shooting a large number of Jewish males.
(Dieckmann in Shared History – Divided Memory, p 364)

29 July 1941
Filbert’s instructions to EK9 leaders – escalation case study in Ostland
In late July Einsatzkommando 9 made its way to Vileyka and remained there for several days.

According to the postwar testimony of Greiffenberger and Schneider, on 29 July Filbert told his officers that henceforth they were to include Jewish women and children in the murder actions. Greiffenberger testified that Filbert told his men that
he had received the order from a higher authority to shoot the Jewish women and children in the future.

Filbert put Schneider in charge of the first such action, to take place the next day.

Greiffenberger testified that Heydrich himself had communicated this order or that it had been communicated at his behest.

Kay’s reconstruction has Filbert traveling to Berlin to meet with Heydrich the week of 23 June.

Greiffenberger and Schneider objected to the order, arguing that some of the commando members were parents of small children. As a result, on 30 July Filbert himself led the shooting operation in Vileyka: 350 Jews were shot including, for the first time, women. Greiffenberger led the next action, also in Vileyka, where at least 100 Jewish men and women and, in another firs, children were shot. Kay describes these two operations as the first of all the Einsatzgruppen murdering Jewish women and children “systematically” and thus representing “the transition to genocide against Soviet Jewry.” After this, Jewish women and children were routinely killed as part of EK 9’s operations.
(Kay, The Making of an SS Killer: The Life of Colonel Alfred Filbert, 1905-1990, pp 57-60, 76-77)

30 July 1941
Operational Order no. 14, guidelines for purge of Soviet POWs and civilian prisoners in camp in army rear area
Referencing Operational Order no. 8, this order called for secrecy in the “immediate annihilation” involved in the “purge of Soviet civilians and prisoners of war" in rear army areas.
(014-USSR)

5 August and 9 August 1941
EM 43 and EM 47 – escalation case study and pogroms
Einsatzgruppe-B commander Nebe reported informed Berlin that
the Security Police sweeps . . . have become comprehensive of late.
This report echoed Stahlecker’s later report concerning Latvia (http://defendinghistory.com/the-two-ful ... ltic/70670) on the subject of pogroms when it stated that
It was, however, almost impossible to stage pogroms against the Jews because of the passivity and the political disinterest of the Byelorussians.
Contrast with EM 47 (9 August) which made the following observation about the failure of pogrom incitement in western Ukraine:
Carefully planned attempts made at an earlier date to incite pogroms against Jews have unfortunately not shown the results hoped for. They were successful in Tarnopol and in Chortkov, where 600 and 110 Jews respectively were disposed of. The reason for this failure may be the fact that the Ukrainian population is still too fearful in view of the strong position the Jews held formerly. They are also still afraid of a possible return of the Soviets.
5 August 1941
Rosenberg record of meeting with Lohse on experience gathered in Ostland
Rosenberg’s note says that Lohse told him that
One major problem is the Jewish question. Thus far, about 10,000 Jews have been liquidated by the Lithuanian population. This execution continues every night.

Rosenberg’s note says that the RFSS is deciding “the fate of the 3,000 Bolsheviks currently in prisons”; that “Labor camps are being set up for the Jews,” and that “the Jews are to be completely removed from this territory.” This note confirms the implementation of Heydrich's self-cleansing order; Rosenberg's diary summary for late 1941 recorded his being informed of such executions as early as 3 July 1941.
(Matthäus & Bajohr, eds, The Political Diary of Alfred Rosenberg and the Onset of the Holocaust, pp 271, 377)

6 August 1941
report of Einsatzgruppe A – escalation item
A report of Einsatzgruppe A, corrected by Stahlecker, differentiated German policies toward Soviet and Polish Jews on the basis of presumed differences in the security threat posed by the different populations and their presumed ties to Bolshevism:
In the Generalgouvernment, the Jews were left to stay in their former places of domicile and work, but this did not lead to any serious source of political danger. By contrast, the Jews living in Ostland or Jews who had been brought in by the red regime were important exponents of Bolshevism. . . . Those who instigate and implement acts of sabotage and terror will not only be the communists apprehended in the previous purging; rather, the Jews in particular will utilize every possibility to foment unrest. It is solely the rapid pacification of the East, which is absolutely necessary, that requires that we eliminate as swiftly as we can any and all possibilities to arise in our construction work.
(Dieckmann, Shared History - Divided Memory, p 365; Dieckmann comments that at this point Stahlecker still conceived the Jewish security threat as coming from male Jews - who were to be liquidated - with what to be done with other Jews an open question)

10 August 1941
Reichenau order
The commander of 6th Army, Reichenau, issued guidelines clarifying Wehrmacht soldiers’ responsibilities in the East as police units carried out the “necessary execution of criminal, Bolshevist, and mainly Jewish elements”; Reichenau told troops that they were to comply with SD requests for assistance (e.g., as guards, to police curious locals – but they were to stop “participating in executions as observers” and they were to refrain from taking photographs). A few weeks after this, an order of Roques (entered in the KTB for Rear Army South, 1 September) clarified that officers and no one else had authority to order executions and, quoting Lower, “that the execution of Jews was to be carried out by forces of the HSSPF, not by individual solders.” Lower's comment is that the expansion of killing brought about roles clarification and jurisdictional agreements.
(Longerich, Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews, p 242; Lower, “The ‘reiblungslose’ Holocaust? The German Military and Civilian Implementation of the ‘Final Solution’ in Ukraine, 1941-1944,” in Feldman & Seibel, Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business and the Organization of the Holocaust, p 240; Steve Luxenberg, Annie's Ghosts: A Journey Into a Family Secret)

12 August 1941
EK 9 – escalation
On this day Schneider led a sub-commando of EK 9 in a search for partisans near Surazh. On turning up empty, Schneider brought his sub-commando to the town of Surazh, where, assisted by a German sapper unit stationed there, Schneider’s unit murdered as many as 500-600 Jewish men, women, and children (2/3 of the victims were women and children). Kay concludes that this action “may have been the first time that EK9 killed the entire Jewish population in a given locality.”
(Kay, The Making of an SS Killer: The Life of Colonel Alfred Filbert, 1905-1990, pp 61-62)

15 August 1941
Himmler visit to the East – escalation impetus
Himmler’s visit, which included observing an execution, let to discussion of widening victims to include Jewish women and children (Himmler diary entry on this is “partisans and Jews”) and a search for new methods of mass murder in the East.
(https://www.hdot.org/longsys/)
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:43 am

III. Orders, Guidelines, Regulations, Notes, Reports Pertaining German Security Operation in the East in Fall 1941

12 September 1941
memorandum from Keitel on “Jews in the newly Occupied Soviet Territories”
Another document, this one a memorandum from Keitel dated 12 September 1941, entitled “Jews in the newly Occupied Soviet Territories,” identified Jews and Communists as Germany’s mortal enemy and reminded officers and troops that “the fight against Bolshevism necessitates indiscriminate and energetic accomplishment of this task especially also against the Jews, the main carriers of Bolshevism.”
(quoted in Beorn, Marching into Darkness, p 60)

12 September
EM 81 – pogroms
EM 81 reported:
The aversion of the population and the clear understanding of the Jewish problem increases when going from west to east. This means that in the districts of central and east Ukraine, where there are no long-time Jews, the Jew is rejected with even greater exasperation than in the “old-Jewish” districts west of Berdichev and Zhitomir. There, a greater passivity and an accommodation to the association with Jews took place over the course of centuries. Concerning propaganda measures for the broad masses in the Ukrainian districts it should be kept in mind that the population is always grateful for our treatment of the Jewish question. Almost nowhere could the population be induced to take active steps against the Jews. This may be traced back to the fear still prevailing in many circles that the Reds might come back again. [see note above of 5 August and 9 August 1941 on EM 43 and EM 47]

. . . It was likewise often deemed important to have men from the militia (Ukrainians) participate in the execution of Jews. Word seems to have passed among the Jews on the other side of the front, too, about the fate they can expect from us. While a considerable number of Jews could be apprehended during the first weeks, it can be ascertained that in the central and eastern districts of the Ukraine, in many cases 70% to 90%, and in some cases even 100% of the Jewish population had bolted. The gratuitous evacuation of hundreds of thousands of Jews may be considered to be an indirect success of the work of the Security Police. As we hear mostly from the other side of the Urals, this is a considerable contribution to the solution of the Jewish question in Europe.

As an oddity we should like to mention the discovery of Jewish kolkhozes. Between Krivoy-Rog and Dnepropetrovsk there is a considerable number of Jewish kolkhozes which consist of Jews not only as the managers but also as agricultural laborers. As far as we could find out they are Jews of low intelligence who had been found unsuitable for important tasks and “exiled” to the country by the political leaders.

In order to be sure work was carried on [without interruption], Einsatzkommando 6 refrained from shooting the Jews in these cases, and was satisfied with the liquidation of the Jewish managers [only], replacing them with Ukrainians.

. . . Executions of Jews are understood everywhere and accepted favorably. It is surprising how calm the delinquents [victims] are when they are shot, both Jews and non-Jews. Fear of death seems to have been dulled by 20 years of Soviet rule.
(https://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic ... 0&start=15)

Browning commented on EM 81 in the Irving trial as follows:
What the reports note as they go further East, there are fewer and fewer Jews in the areas the Germans get because so many have fled, and this is in a sense of a way of saying why his body count has not been maintained, that so many of these are have fled beyond the Soviet lines. We can consider this an indirect success. If the programme then was still expulsion, this would not be an indirect success, it would be a direct success. If it is an indirect success, that implies that it is something other than what the direct process is.

Essentially Irving commits a syllogism:

1. Holocaust historians say the Germans intended to kill all the Jews that came under their occupation
2. EM 81 expresses delight that many Jews fled beyond the German zone
3. Holocaust historians are wrong to say the Germans intended to kill all the Jews that came under their occupation. They really wanted to deport them eastwards.

In reality, EM 81 was referring to the Final Solution as the removal of Jews from Europe, by means of shooting combined with driving fleeing Jews farther east to evade capture and death. Irving failed to consider the fate that the Germans envisaged for the Jews who had fled, namely that the Germans would catch up with those Jews and kill them after defeating the USSR in the war, which they anticipated would happen quickly. Irving, like Rudolf, was exhibiting deliberate blindness to German intentions and the consequences of deliberate German
(http://www.fpp.co.uk/Legal/Penguin/tran ... day016.htm)

16 September 1941
Keitel’s reprisal decree
Another example of an implementation order, meant to ensure that officers and troops carry out policy, can be found in Keitel’s decree of 16 September 1941 on reprisals:
In order to nip agitation in the bud the harshest methods must be employed immediately on the first occasion, so as to make the authority of the occupying power prevail . . . The death penalty for fifty to one hundred Communists must be considered appropriate atonement for the life of a German soldier. . . .

Keitel noted in his decree that human life “often means nothing” to people in the occupied territories, thus “unusual severity” was required in order that the reprisal policy have a “deterrent effect.”
(Rein in Kay, Rutherford & Stahel, Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, p 299; https://phdn.org/archives/www.ess.uwe.a ... /USSR4.htm)

late August 1941 – September 1941
escalation points
Lower provides some case studies of the dramatic escalation that occurred in late summer and fall 1941 in the south of the USSR.

One involves Paul Blobel, commander of Sonderkommando-4a, and Dr Gerhart Panning, senior staff doctor with the Sixth Army. Blobel and Panning already knew each other well, as he and some of his officers had sought medical treatment from Panning's staff, including injections, for nervous conditions they'd developed in the east. Blobel's officers had decried bloody, poorly executed murder actions, as at Zhytomyr in early August, as "intolerable for both victim and firing-squad members." Panning thus found it convenient to work with Blobel on medical research he was conducting on the effect of dumdum bullets used by the Russians. Blobel voluntarily joined the research, using Jewish POWs as “guinea pigs.” On this research, a German officer, James von Moltke, Abwehr international law specialist who later joined the Kreisau Circle, wrote a letter to his wife dated 12 September which described the research as “the height of bestiality and depravity.”

Lower also discusses the notorious events at Bila Tserkva - in the latter part of August 1941. After the mass murder of the adult Jews of the town by a sub-team of Blobel's commando, led by August Häfner, assisted by Waffen-SS marksmen, the Jewish children were left, without parents or adults, locked in a building in the town. Eventually, as the crying and pleas of the abandoned children were heard by army units nearby, Lt Col Helmuth Groscurth, officer in Infantry Division 295, wrote a report that went to Reichenau. The question Groscurth raised was whether there was authorization for the extermination of the Jewish children. As a result, the local army field commander, Riedl, held a meeting with Blobel and Häfner, an Abwehr officer, and Groscurth. According to Lower, the men "branded the chaplains [from the complaining units] a couple of 'troublemakers.' Then Reidl asserted the Nazi ideological rationale for the execution of Jewish children. He urged that 'this brood must be stamped out' without any further 'unnecessary' delays. Blobel agreed." Lower comments that no written order was required for the murder of the Jewish children of Bila Tserkva to be authorized and carried out and that the people deciding on this included committed anti-Semites, like Blobel, as well as administrators of various sorts. She also explains that the incident shows that the army could intervene, even decisively, but was for the most part on board with the killing program. In this case, Reichenau would complain on 26 August about the massacre, stating that it was not "organized properly."

Here is Harrison’s account of the Bila Tserkva killings.

In later events, SK-4a would alter its approach - having Jewish mothers hold their children during execution actions so that both would be shot together so that situations like the one at Bila Tserkva, where children were abandoned and became a delaying factor, could be avoided.

Lower's final case study is Babi Yar, which she describes as carefully planned and efficiently organized, utilizing the experience gained in the summer months and applying the lessons learned. Here is a list of sources on events at Babi Yar.

By the end of 1941, most Jewish communities in Ukraine, except for in western parts of Volhynia-Podolia (where 350,000 Jews survived), were gone and their residents murdered. A very significant part of the killing had occurred under the Wehrmacht military administration, before the Ostministerium established a civil authority for Ukraine in September 1941.

2 October 1941
Hitler appeal – identifying Jews with communism
Harrison writes:
The importance of antisemitism to the German understanding of the USSR was made clear by Hitler himself when, on October 2, 1941, he made a proclamation to the troops in the East which stated that the capitalist and Bolshevist systems both consisted of “Jews and Jews alone,” a theme that he had also emphasized in Mein Kampf, showing that this thought had preoccupied him for two decades before he launched Barbarossa. Similarly, Himmler had referred to Communism as a “Jewish-Bolshevistic revolution of sub-humans” in 1936, and a radio broadcast by Fritzsche on July 7, 1941, depicted Barbarossa as a war in which “culture, civilization, and human decency make a stand against the diabolical principle of a sub-human world.” [see note above]
(http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot. ... llers.html)

10 October 1941
”Order Concerning Conduct of Troops in the Eastern Territories”
The commander of the 6th Army issued the following guidelines for troops:
SECRET!

Regarding the conduct of troops towards the bolshevistic system, vague ideas are still prevalent in many cases. The most essential aim of war against the Jewish-bolshevistic system is a complete destruction of their means of power and the elimination of asiatic influence from the European culture. In this connection the troops are facing tasks which exceed the one sided routine of soldiering. The soldier in the eastern territories is not merely a fighter according to the rules of the art of war but also a bearer of ruthless national ideology and the avenger of bestialities which have been inflicted upon German and racially related nations.

Therefore the soldier must have full understanding for the necessity of a severe but just revenge on subhuman Jewry. The Army has to aim at another purpose, i. e., the annihilation of revolts in hinterland which, as experience proves, have always been caused by Jews.

The combating of the enemy behind the front line is still not being taken seriously enough. Treacherous, cruel partisans and unnatural women are still being made prisoners of war and guerilla fighters dressed partly in uniforms or plain clothes and vagabonds are still being treated as proper soldiers, and sent to prisoner of war camps. . . . Such an attitude of the troops can only be explained by complete thoughtlessness, so it is now high time for the commanders to clarify the meaning of the present struggle. . . .
(https://phdn.org/archives/www.ess.uwe.a ... /USSR2.htm)

31 October 1941
”Letter to the Reich Commissioner for the East concerning the execution of Jews, with reply”
Leibbrandt of the East Ministry wrote to Lohse, head of the civil administration of the Ostland:
The Reich and Main Security Office has complained that the Reich Commissioner for the East has forbidden executions of Jews in Libau.

I request a report in regard to this matter by return mail.
Lohse would explain to Leibbrandt, on 15 November 1941, that he had only forbidden what he called "wild" executions of Jews and asked Lohse further raises the question whether he was to understand that the policy was for all Jews in the East to be executed:
Will you please inform me whether your inquiry of October 31 should be interpreted as a directive to liquidate all the Jews in Ostland? Is this to be done regardless of age, sex, and economic requirements (for instance, the Wehrmacht's demand for skilled workers in the armament industry)? . . .

So far I have not been able to find such a directive either in the regulations concerning the Jewish question in the "Brown Portfolio" (Braune Mappe) or in any other decree.
(http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/docume ... q=jews#p.2; https://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Micr ... 202009.pdf; http://www.leibbrandt.com/leibbrandt_ar ... ail013.htm)

20 November 1941
Manstein’s version of Reichenau’s 10 October directives to the troops
Manstein, commander of the German 11th Army, issued an order to his troops on their conduct; the order stated:
This struggle is not being carried on against the Soviet Armed Forces alone in the established form laid down by European rules of warfare.

. . . Bolshevists left behind keep the population freed from Bolshevism in a state of unrest by means of terror and attempt thereby to sabotage the political and economic pacification of the country. Harvests and factories are destroyed and the city population in particular is thereby ruthlessly delivered to starvation.

Jewry is the middleman between the enemy in the rear and the remains of the Red Army and the Red leadership still fighting. More strongly than in Europe they hold all key positions of political leadership and administration, of trade and crafts and constitutes a cell for all unrest and possible uprisings.

The Jewish Bolshevik system must be wiped out once and for all and should never again be allowed to invade our European living space.

The German soldier has therefore not only the task of crushing the military potential of this system. He comes also as the bearer of a racial concept and as the avenger of all the cruelties which have been perpetrated on him and on the German people. . . .

The soldier must appreciate the necessity for the harsh punishment of Jewry, the spiritual bearer of the Bolshevik terror. This is also necessary in order to nip in the bud all uprisings which are mostly plotted by Jews.
(IMT Blue series, vol 20, pp 641-642)

In these guidelines Manstein told his officers and soldiers that Jews and partisans were one and the same: “Jewry is the middleman between the enemy in the rear and the remains of the Red Army and the Red leadership still fighting. More strongly than in Europe they hold all key positions of political leadership and administration” and “all uprisings . . . are mostly plotted by Jews.” Thus, the military had a duty to “crush” the Jews and deliver a “harsh punishment of Jewry, the spiritual bearer of the Bolshevik terror.”

18 December 1941
”Letter to the Reich Commissioner for the East, concerning the treatment of Jews”
Brautigam, “section chief for general politics of the East Ministry,” to Lohse, head of the Ostland administration, replying to Lohse’s query (see note for 15 November 1941) about policy with regards to exterminating Jews in the Ostland:
As for the Jewish question, oral discussions that have taken place in the meantime have brought about clarification. As a general rule, economic factors should not be considered in deciding the matter. In the future, any questions that may arise should be settled directly with the Upper SS and Police Leader.
(http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jewishnb/hr ... annsee.pdf, p 798; http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/docume ... 461%22#p.1; https://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Micr ... 202009.pdf)
"It was still at the stage of clubs and fists, hurrah, tala"

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Jeffk 1970
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Re: Monstrous on the Einsatzgruppen

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Sun Nov 04, 2018 7:08 pm

Thanks for all. I was unexpectedly busier yesterday than I expected so I didn’t get a chance to read all of them until today.
“I noticed this morning that a group of our Landsberg friends have been given their freedom this morning. These include...Schubert, Jost and Nosske. Schubert confessed to...supervising the execution of about 800 Jews...(referring to the order to clean up Simferopol)...Schubert managed to kill all the Jews (by Christmas 1941). Nosske was the one the other defendants called the biggest bloodhound....
Noel, Noel, what the hell.”
Benjamin Ferencz in a letter to Telford Taylor, December 1951