A Note on Early Reports

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A Note on Early Reports

Post by Jeff_36 » Thu Apr 02, 2015 3:12 pm

As most of you should know, on October 22nd, 2014, the city of Ottawa, Canada (my hometown) was subjected to a rather gutless ISIL-inspired terrorist attack that claimed the life of a Canadian soldier standing guard outside our War Memorial. I was off work that particular day, and was informed by my sister of the unfolding events shortly after they had occurred.

As the downtown core was locked, I could only sit in my suburban living room, pacing like a caged tiger, raging at those who would dare profane my country. I kept on top of the events for 14 hours, watching various news channels, phoning my numerous friends who lived and worked downtown, and following the twitter feed of the events.

It was widely reported that a shooter had been killed, but there were reports of as many as five other active shooters, snipers on rooftops, and a getaway driver. No one really knew. Whole streets were being cleared out and people were tweeting that they had seen other shooters. At noon, the RCMP (Canada's national Police) held a press conference giving no details but referring to the events as an active and unfolding situation. There were disturbing rumors of a second shooting at a large mall near the Parliament buildings, unconfirmed reports of weather or not the police had a second shooter in custody.

The situation stabilized later in the day, but at around 9:00 PM there were reports that two other suspects were at large. It continued like this for another hour or so before the mayor came on Anderson Cooper's show and confirmed that there had only been one shooter, who had been killed (PWNED) by the head of Parliamentary security shortly after the initial incident. Following this announcement, the streets were re-opened and the tension dissipated rapidly.

If you did not pick it up, the point of this schpeel is to say that varying initial reports, fueled by information affected by the emotional and secretive nature of the occurring events are often inaccurate, but do not expose the underlying incident itself to be totally false.
The actions of David and the Daft Rabbit are akin to relying on news reports collected between 10:00 AM and 1:00 PM on the day I mentioned for clear information of the events, and expecting them to be note perfect. Most normal people understand that the fog of war plays a huge role, and that inconsistencies and absurdities in initial reports of the terrorist attack that I have described does not mean that it did not happen. It is the same with the Nazi Genocide of Jews during WWII.

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Re: A Note on Early Reports

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Fri Apr 03, 2015 2:55 am

Placing these notes (on the early shootings, deportations to death camps, and murders in death camps) here, as it pertains to the thread topic. A version of another list I linked to last week, with some additions - my personal list, from my files, incomplete references throughout. Still far from complete, with, e.g., very few sources for non-Einsatz Reinhard killing installations. Covering ’41-’42. (Apologies for any double entries, missing information, other glitches.)

Date: 30-Aug-41
Originator: Delegatura
Recipient: govt mid-Oct
Published: JTA Bulletin 29 Oct; Dziennik Polski 31 Oct
Topic: 6000 Jews executed in Cyzew near Lomza on 27 Aug

Date: 1-Oct-41
Originator: Henryk Grabowski
Recipient: Jewish underground
Published: Neged Hazerem, Oct 41
Topic: Polish scout sent to Vilna, report on Hashomer Hatzair information on Vilna (Vilna Jewish pop dropped from 70k to 35k, "mass killing"; terror), eyewitness account of extermination action at Troki

Date: 1-Oct-41
Originator: Aryah Wilner, Hashomer Hatzair
Recipient: David Fligelman, OS interviewer
Topic: reports from Vilna on actions in Vilna; Jewish population decreased from 70k to 25k

Date: fall-41
Originator: young woman from Vilna
Recipient: Rabbi Huberman, OS interviewer
Topic: massacres at Ponar (Vilna)

Date: mid-Nov 41
Originator: Gen Rowecki
Recipient: "London"
Published: no, General Staff only
Topic: eastern Polish action: 3000 shot in Wilno, also Bialystok, Bereza

Date: 1-Dec-41
Originator: members Vilna youth groups
Recipient: OS
Topic: “outright extermination of the Jews”; news disbelieved in Warsaw

Date: mid-Jan 42
Originator: Minister Stanislaw Mikolajczyk
Recipient: Schwarzbart
Published: no, Delegatura report
Topic: from Sept: Bialystok, "resettlement" as cover for shootings; "In Lithuania almost all Jews have been already murdered . . .” - 40k of 70k remain in Wilno (Vilna) for example, Ponar mentioned - (mass grave 1 km long) also Pinsk, Brzesc, Homsk, Motol, Kobryn, Wlodzimierz

Date: late Jan-42
Originator: Szlama Winer (also called Jakob Grojnowski)
Recipient: Hersh & Bluma Wasser, OS interviewers
Topic: report on Chelmno from escapee, gas vans, very detailed (AK reports from Warthegau converge with this, also related - rabbi of Grabow, Jacob Shulman, visit from escapee Winer using false name)

Date: Feb-42
Originator: ONR
Published: Szaniec, no. 4 (78) for 15-Feb-42
Topic: report on Ponar from Polish nationalist organization
Background: The denier Little Grey Rabbit derived some kind of perverse pleasure from pretending that news of Ponar only reached "the world" in spring 1942 (May?), 10 months too late, whilst at the same time premature reports of extermination at Treblinka were also being made. Citations of 1941 documents from Oyneg Shabes archives regarding Ponar would not dissuade LGR. In volume 3 of Jewish Responses to Persecution is a long excerpt from an informative document pertaining to Ponar. The document has been quoted briefly by Kassow. It is an article that appeared in Neged Hazerem, no. 7-8, from late 1941 (October?, Neged Hazarem being the underground newspaper of Warsaw's HaShomer HaTzair) and is a verbatim report from a "comrade" who arrived in Warsaw from Vilna, the article entitled "Bloody Days in Vilna" and rehearsing the major events - snatchings, early execution actions at Ponar, Lithuanian collaborators, desecration of Sznipszki area synagogue and humiliation of rabbi, "the general provocation" of September "on Niemecka Street," September "death in Ponar," the two ghettos, the two Judenrate, issues with Schienen, liquidation actions outside Vilna (Ejszyszki, Landwarow, at Troki), flight to Belaus, the elimination of the small ghetto, the reduction of Vilna's Jewish population from 70,000 to 35,000 in the course of three months in 1941.
Details from Szaniec:There are also some things of inadvertent interest in Chodakiewicz's collection on "Golden Harvest," none more satisfying than this, from Polish nationalist (ONR) publication Szaniec, no. 4 (78), 15 February 1942, another "problem" for LGR’s contrived ”too-late news" thesis: “At the present time and according to verified data, the Kaunas and Wilno regions saw their Jewish populace completely annihilated. Not only are the men executed (shot) in groups, but also women, the elderly, and children. These operations are handled by Lithuanian military personnel with officers at the helm,* while representatives of German forces take photos and make films. After the quick removal of Wilno Jews to the ghetto, which proved unable to accommodate such a number (over 50,000), everything except the belongings they were able to carry was confiscated, including baggage and transported belongings. In the course of a month, it became a recurring daily task to take a couple hundred people from the ghetto to Ponary Hills and shoot them there. The Jewish populace in Vilnius [sic] is systematically extirpated; there will probably be only a small amount of specialists that will be permitted to work in the German army supply chain. Presently, there are barely 12,000 Jews left.”
Jäger, of course, put the number of working Jews and their families still alive in December at 15,000, itself a low estimate due to the survival underground of illegals. The first wave of Vilna executions at Ponar ended in December 1941, just 2 months, unhappily for LGR’s ”idea," prior to the appearance of the article in the ONR organ.

* Earlier, Szaniec had more accurately described the Lithuanian execution squads thus: "Partisan Lithuanian band recruited from ex-Lithuanian military personnel" but, in keeping with the nationalist ideology, explained that these units had been "in the Red Army" but with the German invasion had adopted an anti-Communist stance.

Date: Mar 42?
Originator: Mina Astman, Malka Talenfeld
Topic: escape from Belzec, return to Zolkiew

Date: 1-Mar-42
Originator: Schwarzbart
Topic: confirmation 30k killed Wilno

Date: 17-Mar-42
Originator: Josef Siegfried, Judenrat member, deputy to Alten in Lublin JSS
Recipient: Phone call to Krakow headquarters of JSS
Topic: deportations from Lublin had begun midnight that day; SD running the deportations (those without red SIPO stamp deported for resettlement – 20,000 to be deported at rate of 1,400 per day; updated report from Siegfried 19-Mar in another phone call “to report that all the deportees were being sent to Belzec (not to the USSR)” (Silberklang, Gates of Tears, page 338, citing YVA, JM/1576, pp 122, 123, 124) (on page 339 Silberklang cites trial testimony on Tomaszow-Lubelski Judenrat organization of Polish couriers to follow trains to Belzec, also a family did same on own initiative)

Date: 22-Mar-42
Originator: Chaim Kaplan
Recipient: diary entry
Topic: first record of Lublin deportations – in Silberklang, page 340

Date: 28-Mar-42
Originator: Moshe Wilnicki in Lublin
Recipient: letter to Natan Schwalb (World He-Halutz representative in Switzerland)
Topic: “bad news” from Lublin – in Silberklang, page 341

Date: 29-Mar-42
Originator: Szmul Zitomirski from Hrubieszow (had fled from Lublin)
Recipient: letter to Natan Schwalb (World He-Halutz representative in Switzerland)
Topic: “Uncle Gerush visiting Jews in Lublin (Gerush translated as “expulsion”) – in Silberklang, page 341

Date: 29-Mar-42
Originator: Daniel Lewkowicz, in hiding in Lublin
Recipient: letter to his sister in Warsaw
Topic: 15,000 Lublin Jews deported; 1,000 shot in roundups – in Silberklang, page 341

Date: 31-Mar-42
Originator: Minister Mikolajczyk
Recipient: Delegatura
Topic: request to confirm that SS and Ukrainian had massacred Jews in Lwow, Stanislawow, Kuty (reply reached London 19 Jun 42)

Date: Apr?
Originator: Rabbi David Kahana, Lwow
Published: no, diary
Topic: Lwow deportations discovered to have gone to Belzec, confirmed by RR workers, no escapes, no knowledge about camp innards

Date: through Apr-42
Originator: Szlama Winer's nephew– postcards from Fela Baijler, Szlamek Bajler (or Feiner, Wiener - “Szlamek”, Jakob Grojnowksi) and others
Recipient: Hersh Wasser (OS)
Published: no, postcard taken from Zamosc, news of Belzec
(Additional notes on Oyneg Shabes spring ’42: Szlamek was of course interviewed by Oyneg Shabes about Chlemno. After he left Warsaw for Zamosc, Szlamek wrote to that "“the cemetery is in Belzec, it’s the same death as Chelmno.” Szlamek named specific towns whose Jews were being killed in Belzec. (Kassow, pp 292)
By April already, the Yiddish-language bulletin, Miteylungen, had run an article entitled “The Jewish Population in the Face of Physical Extermination: a report from Lublin, where thousands of Jews had been deported to an unknown destination.” (Kassow, p 295) The articles in Miteylungen mentioned Belzec as the destination for deported Lublin Jews and noted rumors of gassings there: deportations from Izbica, Lwow, Okuniew, Wawer, Wawolnica, Mielec were cited. Czerniakow and Lewin IIRC referenced almost in real time deportations from GG communities to somewhere - we know today Belzec.)
Topic: April “deportations to Belzec, which was ‘dos bajs olem’ (the cemetery)” – Silberklang, page 342; also Kassow, pages 287-292

Date: 25-Apr-42
Originator: note from Izbica (no name) found in YVA, M.10.AR.1/949
Recipient: Warsaw (OS?)
Topic: deportations from Izbica to Belzec on 24-Mar and 8-Apr (latter probably from Rejowiec and Piaski passing through Izbica on way to Belzec) – in Silberklang, pages 341-342

Date: Apr-42
Originator: AK (Home Army), Lublin District Command Report, General Rowecki
Recipient: Main Headquarters
Source: Arad, BST, pp 349-351
AK Lublin District Command Report to Main Headquarters about the Political Situation, April 1942
Attachment Nr 3
Camp in Belzec
"The camp was fully completed a few days before March 17, 1942. From that day transports with Jews began to arrive from the direction of Lvov and Warsaw.... On the first day five transports arrived, afterward, one transport arrived daily from each direction. The transport enters the railway spur of Belzec camp after dis¬embarkation, lasting half an hour, the train returns empty.... The observations of the local population (the camp is within sight and hearing distance of the inhabitants near the railway station) led all of them to one conclusion: that there is a mass murder of the Jews inside the camp. The following facts testify to this:
1.Between March 17 and April 13, about fifty-two transports (each of eighteen to thirty-five freight-cars with an average of 1,500 people) arrived in the camp.
2. No Jews left the camp, neither during the day nor the night.
3. No food was supplied to the camp (whereas bread and other food articles had been dispatched to the Jews who had worked earlier on the construction of the camp).
4. Lime was brought to the camp.
5. The transports arrived at a fixed time. Before the arrival of a transport, no Jews were seen in the camp.
6. After each transport, about two freight cars with clothing are removed from the camp to the railway stores. (The guards steal clothes.)
7. Jews in underwear were seen in the area of the camp.
8. In the area of the camp there are three barracks; they cannot accommodate even one-tenth of the Jews.
9. In the area of the camp, a strong odor can be smelled on warmer days.
10. The guards pay for vodka, which they drink in large quantities, with any requested sum, and frequently with watches and val¬uables.
11. Jews arrived in Belzec [the township] looking for a witness who would testify that Jews are being killed there. They were ready to pay 120,000 zloty.... They did not find a volunteer.... It is unknown by which means the Jews are liquidated in the camp. There are three assumptions: (1) electricity; (2) gas; (3) by pumping out the air.
With regard to (1): there is no visible source of electricity; with regard to (2): no supply of gas and no residue of the remaining gas after the ventilation of the gas chamber were observed; with regard to (3): there are no factors that deny this [possibility]. It was even verified that during the building of one of the barracks, the walls and floor were covered with metal sheets (for some purpose).
In the area of the camp huge pits were dug in the autumn. At that time it was assumed that there would be underground stores. Now the purpose of this work is clear. From the particular barrack where the Jews are taken for so-called disinfection, a narrow railway leads to these pits. It was observed that the “disinfected” Jews were trans¬ported to a common grave by this trolley.
In Belzec the term Totenlager [“death camp”] was heard in connection with the Jewish camp. The leadership of the camp is in the hands of twelve SS men (the commander is Hauptmann Wirth) who have forty guards for help."
[Silberklang, page 345, cites from early April “Reports for the underground press, ‘Report nr. 1, The Jewish Population Marked for Physical Extermination’” – (Yiddish) in YVA, M.10.AS1/259 – mentioning Belzec, site of old labor camp, murder there, in the words of the report, “in the same way as in Chelmno, that is, they are poisoned by gas”]

Date: 1-Apr-42
Originator: Armia Krajowa
Published: internal
Topic: report Belzec opened 17 Mar 42, Jews on transports from direction of Lwow and Warsaw, over 75k transported by 13 Apr, no Jews leave camp, no food, lime brought to camp, train cars with clothing, small camp, Jews searching for witnesses - guesses at means (villagers say electricity, gas, pumping out air) - Germans use term Totenlager, Wirth as commander

Date: Apr-42
Published: Only Belzec was first mentioned in the APRIL42 edition of the Biuletyn Informacyjni Sobibor was not mentioned in 1942 or 1943 at all. [Matthew Ellard]
Date: Apr-42
Recipient: Oyneg Shabes
Published: Miteylungen
Topic: “The Jewish Population in the Face of Physical Extermination: a report from Lublin, where thousands of Jews had been deported to an unknown destination,” noting Belzec and gassing deaths; also citing deportations from Izbica, Lwow, Okuniew, Wawer, Wawolnica, Mielec

Date: 16-Apr-42
Originator: Dr Zygmunt Klukowski, Szczebrzeszyn, Zamosc county
Published: no, diary entry
Topic: "we know that every day there is a train arriving at Belzec from Lublin and one from Lwow, each with twenty cars. The Jews must get off, are taken behind a barbed-wire fence and murdered by an electric current or poisoned with gas and then the corpses are burned" Apr sometime Nowe Tory (underground Bund newspaper) Lublin deportees taken to "the famous camp of Belzec, where hundreds of young Jews were murdered in an inhuman way. . . . Among the population rumors are spread that in this camp extermination is being carried out like in Chelmno, by poisoning with gas" - Jews of Izbica "no doubt that they are deported to Belzec, where they are murdered with poisonous gas" (Arad, BST)

Date: 1-May-42
Recipient: Schwarzbart
Topic: repeat that most Lithuanian Jews killed

Date: 5-May-42
Published: Dziennik Polski
Topic: most Jews in eastern borderlands town "disappeared"

Date: 5-May-42
Originator: Warsaw underground report
Topic: reference to deportations to Belzec (Silberklang page 346)

Date: throughout 1942
Originator: Kruk, in his diary from Vilna
Published: no
Topic: various killing actions, EG/police battalions and AR
March 12, 1942: Kruk hears about the Kaunas action against western Jews from Gens, who gives him a token taken from a victim.
Kruk heard and recorded a shitload. See references to Riga (30 Jan 1942, 16 Feb 1942; 13 Sept 1942 is telling), Grodno, Siaulai, Cracow (confused but ominous note 22 May 1942), Lodz (dire but erroneous rumors cited 4 July 1942), Kovno (many references), Bialystok, Lida (many references to killings there), Baranovitsch (27 March 1942, same day as report of news from Lida), Bezdany, Kiena, Warsaw (entries for 15 Sept, 30 Sept, and 6 Oct 1942, there are references to Otwock and Felenica) and Treblinka (on 5 Sept 1942 Jews taken from Warsaw "toward Malkinia"; on 30 October 1942 mention of "Treblinka near Malkinia" as where Jews were taken from Warsaw to be "poisoned en masse with gas or killed with electrical currents in the former soap factory there"! – half a dozen mentions of Malkinia), Woronow (throughout May 1942, Minsk, Zezmer, Oszmiana of course and many other towns. News from escapees/refugees, letters, Christian visitor (Riga Feb 1942), newspaper population figures (Cracow), “a Jew from Piotrow” (Treblinka), etc.

Date: ?
Originator: Gen Rowecki
Topic: accurate dispatches on eastern massacres and Chelmno

Date: May-42
Originator: ?
Topic: “Inaccuracies, such as a May report of 1,500 Jews being gassed daily at Trawniki, might have confused recipients of these reports, but by summer, a terrible – but unbelievable – picture of Nazi activities in the GG had been presented.” Silberklang, page 347

Date: 11-May-42
Originator: Bund
Recipient: smuggled to Polish government-in-exile, London, late May (also circulated within GG and Warsaw ghetto)
Published: BBC broadcast 2 Jun 42
Topic: carried by Polish underground; actions described as total extermination; est 700k dead, reference to Hitler's prophecy (YVA, M.10.AR1/137) – in Silberklang, page 345

Date: 29-May-42
Originator: Delegatura
Recipient: Schwarzbart
Topic: report 4/42 "in the conquered East the process of extermination of the Jews is being completed"; 8000 survive in Wilno, Ukraine no Jews left

Date: June 1942
Originator: Emanuel Ringelblum
Published: no, diary entry
Topic: need to get information out
Content: “June 1942 about the best option were it possible to send somebody from the ghetto to the outside world, Ringelblum wrote that the conclusion reached was that “the most important thing was to arouse the world to the horror of the extermination we are now suffering. There was no point in even considering the question as to whether or not this would worsen our condition. We have nothing to lose. The extermination is being executed according to a plan and schedule prepared in advance. Only a miracle can save us: the sudden end of the war. Otherwise, we are lost.” http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/terribl ... er004.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Date: 1-Jun-42
Originator: no name, written in Yiddish, sent from Wlodawa to Warsaw
Recipient: Oyneg Shabes, perhaps transcribed by Eliahu Gutkowski
Topic: warning to Jews in Warsaw on basis of May 1942 deportation from Wlodawa to Sobibor (22-23 May, 1300 deported in violent action); coded language – “Uncle” has prepared “apartments” also outside your town (“a new apartment for everyone – the same one he had near us” – “I am writing especially so you’ll know because uncle wants And He Expelled Man, and then you will be together with Shlomo Velvel of blessed memory . . . Remember, be in your apartments at all costs, so that you won’t be with Shlomo Velvel of blessed memory” – according to Kassow (page 293), Shlomo Velvel is reference to the Radyzner Rebbe (Shmuel Shlomo Leiner) murdered by Nazis for resistance activity in May ’42 – in Silberklang, page 344

Date: 2-Jun-42
Published: BBC radio broadcast, see Bund entry above; other radio broadcast followed – specific mentions of Chelmno, Bełzec, Vilna (Kassow, p 299)
Source: Oyneg Shabes (2 report), Bund
Topic: general extermination information
Content: 700,000 Jews murdered in Poland (total was higher)
Kassow, p 298

Date: early Jun 42
Originators: Frumka Plotnicka, Chava Folman, OS couriers
Topic: corroborated the story about Sobibor for the Oyneg Shabes - Sobibor like Belzec

Date: 6-Jun-42
Originator: Polish cabinet
Recipient: Allied govts
Topic: Sikorski speech/broadcast protest against German crimes in Poland including "extermination of the Jewish population . . . reaching an unbelievable scale"

Date: early Jun-42
Originator: letter
Recipient: smuggled into Warsaw
Published: diary
Topic: gassing of Jews from Wlodowa at Sobibor and warning of a similar fate in store for Warsaw’s Jews. The letter described the death of Rebbe Shlomo Velvel Lajner and advised Warsaw inmates that the “best remedy” was to go into hiding

Date: early Jun-42
Originator: Emanuel Ringelblum
Published: diary
Topic: “extermination operation at Belzec”; not a single escape had occurred from the camp there

Date: 17-Jun-42
Originator: Emanuel Ringelblum
Published: diary
Topic: fate of deportees in General-Gouvernement was “transfer to the other world” through consignment “to Sobibor near Chelm” “where Jews are choked to death with gas.”

Date: sometime in Jun 42
Originator: Wasser, Gutkowski, Ringelblum
Published: OS report
Topic: "The Gehanna of Polish Jewry" - Ponar killings carried out by Lithuanian partisans, account of Slonim massacre of Oct 41, also Lublin, Lwow, 600k Polish Jews dead, 1942 Lublin and Lwow deportations
(Additional notes on Oyneg Shabes summer ’42: 
There's an OS bulletin written by Wasser and Gutkowski for the week of 12-18 July 1942 which discusses a number of local actions, the camp at Skarzysko-Kamienna, and also this curiosity: “Eyewitnesses say that in the trains passing the railway station of Belzec the conductors were told to close the windows of the cars for 6 minutes in order to prevent the stench of rotting bodies of murdered Jews from spoiling the air in the coaches.”
This item is entitled simply "Belzec." Quoted in Kermish, To Live with Honor and Die with Honor, p 32 The OS people were onto this stuff very quickly.
Belzec labor camp: the reputation of the camp was abroad and horrible - compared to Auschwitz in at least one of the early reports, a report in Kermish's collection, pp 181ff, entitled "Lublin" in the collection, states, “A number of labor camps operated in the vicinity of Lublin; the most notorious being the one in Belzec (which existed for 12 weeks) and the one in Tyszowce. The commander of the former camp, Dolps [Dolp?], stuck terror in all of Lublin. He was wont to appear unexpectedly on some street or square and shoot at people for no reason.”
This item also discusses to founding of Majdanek and the March 1942 roundups and deportations from Lublin.
The 700,000 was the figure worked up by OS for the BBC 26 June 1942 broadcast. 
There are a couple of interesting items on the Baltics in the documents collected by Kermish. An article written 15 June 1942, reviewing the extermination of the Jews, noted that “Already in the first days of the German-Russian war, when the Hitlerites occupied one city after another in the Baltic lands, Byelorussia, Wolyn, Galicia, mass slaughters began, literally, in a whole series of Jewish towns.”
The article laid these mass murders to the Sonderdienst and Gestapo.
“On the basis of provisional and highly cautious estimates, over a million Jews have perished to date during the one-year war with the Soviet Union. . . . If to this figure we add approximately 250 thousand casualties of epidemics, we then arrive at the ominous figure of 1,380,000, and this in the period of just under one year.” (p 689) The article includes a table summarizing the casualties by location. For the “Baltic Countries,” the entries are “Vilna 50,000” and “Other places 320,000.” (p 690)
from 1944 - A letter written by Ringelblum, signed by him and Berman, to YIVO, reviewing the situation, explained Warsaw-Vilna contacts in the light of the work of OS. The letter opened, “We are writing to you at a time when ninety-five percent of the Jews of Poland have already perished in gruesome sufferings, in the gas-chambers of the slaughterhouses of Treblinka, of Sobibor, of Chelmno and Oswiecim or were murdered in the countless ‘liquidation-actions’ in Ghettos and Camps. . . . In 1941 and 1942 we [OS] maintained contact with Z. Kalmanovicz in Vilna. . . . At present moment, there are no more Jews in Vilna.”
Kermish, pp 764-765, letter written 1 March 1944)

Date: 24-Jun-42
Originator: Bund report
Published: Dziennik Polski
Topic: "Terror in Poland: Mass Shooting of Jews"

Date: 24-Jun-42 BBC guidelines (broadcasts followed)
Topic: staff to give prominence to extermination of Jews

Date: 25-Jun-42
Originator: Bund report
Recipient: Zygielbojm
Published: Daily Telegraph article written by Zygielbojm and based on Bund's information, many references in following days

Date: 26-Jun-42
Source: Bund, Oyneg Shabes
Published: BBC broadcast; see article in The Jewish Chronicle
Topic: mention Ponar, Slonim, Lemberg (Lwow), Chelmno, 700k mentioned again
Ringelblum: “Friday, 26 June 1942 has been a great day for ‘Oneg Shabbat.’ This morning, the English radio broadcast about the fate of Polish Jewry. They told about everything we know so well: about Slonim and Vilna, Lemberg and Chelmno, and so forth… The `Oneg Shabbat' group has fulfilled a great historical mission… I do not know who of our group will survive… but one thing is clear to all of us. Our toils and tribulations, our devotion and constant terror have not been in vain… It is not important whether or not the revelation of the incredible slaughter of Jews will have the desired effect – whether the methodical liquidation of entire Jewish communities will stop. One thing we know – we have fulfilled our duty… Nor will our deaths be meaningless, like the deaths of tens of thousands of Jews.” http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/terribl ... er004.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Also, quoted Kassow, p 299: “The Oyneg Shabes has performed a great historical mission. It has alerted the world to our fate and perhaps rescued hundreds of thousands of Polish Jews from extermination. The near future will show whether these hopes will come true.”
Jewish Chronicle, 10 July 1942: ““For the first time in the history of the B.B.C. Jews all over the world were last week given an opportunity of listening to a broadcast in Yiddish from London. The broadcast followed an announcement in the European Service summarising the recent reports about the atrocities committed against the Jews in Poland. . . . It is interesting to note that the Nazis have been rattled by the B.B.C. disclosures of the atrocities in Poland, and their press and radio have been violently attacking the B.B.C. The Angriff, Dr. Goebbels’s newspaper, describes the B.B.C.’s actions as an interference in Germany’s ‘internal affairs.’ . . . The report on the atrocities published recently by Mr. S. Zygielbojm and the statement made by Dr. I. Schwartzbart at the conference of the World Jewish Congress have been submitted by the Jewish members of the Polish National Council to all member of both Houses of Parliament. . . .” Matthaus, ed, Jewish Responses to Persecution, 1941-1942, p 458

Date: ?
Published: British Section WJC
Topic: Schwartzbart announces 1 million Jews killed by Nazis

Date: 5-Jul-42
Originator: girl from Deblin-Irena (had escaped deportation)
Recipient: Abraham Lewin
Published: no, diary
Topic: rumor of Sobibor as murder place

Date: 7-Jul-42
Originator: Minister Mikolajcczyk
Recipient: National Council
Topic: confirmation of above: Lublin, Isbica Kujawksa, Rawa Ruska, Bilgoraj, Wawolnica, Mielic, Lwow, Wilno, Tarnopol, Radom, Stryj, Przemsyl; "apparently, in Belzec and Trawniki, [the Germans] murder [Jews] with poison gas"; more than 200k dead

Date: 9-Jul-42
Originator: National Council
Published: press conference
Topic: Dep PM Mikolajcyzk 200k dead (eschewing Bund's 700k); both Polish National Council and London skeptical of numbers; also Schwarzbart but Zygielbojm early believer of reports
Also: Representatives of the British government, the Polish government, and the PNC “offered different casualty figures. According tot he British Minister of Information and his polish counterpart, ‘700,000 Jews alone have been murdered in Poland’; the Polish Minister for Home Affairs spoke of ‘400,000 Polish citizens (Poles and Jews)’ killed since the beginning of the war, while the Jewish PNC members avoided an overall estimate.” Mattaus, Jewish Responses . . ., 1941-1942, p 459

Date: 11-Jul-42
Published: Dziennik Polski
Topic: “The Slaughter of the Jews
The situation of the Jews presents itself even worse. The matter of the Warsaw ghetto is well known. Hunger, death and diseases continually and systematically threaten the Jewish population. In the area of Lublin on the night of 23-24 March [1942] the Jewish population was deported. The sick and disabled were killed on the spot. All children aged 2-3 years from the orphanage, who numbered 108, were sent away from the city along with their nurses and murdered. Altogether 2,500 people were murdered that night, while the remaining 26,000 were sent to camps in Bełżec and Tremblinka [wywieziono do obozów w Bełżcu i Tremblince]. From Izbica Kujawska 8,000 people were deported in an unknown direction. Reportedly in Bełźec and Tremblinka the killing is going on with the help of poisonous gas [za pomoca gazów trujacych]. Mass murders in Rawa Ruska and Bilgoraj where the Jewish communities ceased to exist. On March 22nd the SS shot dead 120 people in the marketplace of Wąwolnica near Kazimierz. An unknown number was moved out of the city and murdered. On March 30th 350 people were deported and killed on their way to Nałęczów. The rest was put inside wagons that were sealed and sent away. In Mielec a total of 1,300 people were killed on March 9. 2,000 Jews were killed in Mir; 2,500 in Nowogródek; 1,800 in Wołożyn; 4,000 in Kojdanów. From Hamburg 30,000 Jews were brought to Minsk; all of them were shot. In Lwów the count is of 30,000, in Vilna of 60,000, in Stanisławów around 15,000, in Tarnopol of 5,000, in Złoczów 2,000, in Brzeżany of 4,000 murdered Jews. Murders of Jews are also from Tarnów, Radom, Zborów, Kołomyja, Sambor, Stryj, Drohobycz, Zbaraż, Brody, Przemyśl, Kolo and Dąbie.
Under the constraint to dig their own graves – shootings with machine guns [kolumłotami] and killings with grenades – even poisoning with gas [zatruwanie gazem] are the daily methods of destroying the Jewish people, while it is understood that even as in Lwów the Jewish communities themselves had to draw up the list of criminals.”

Date: 18-Jul-42
Originator: Warsaw underground
Published: “Gehenna Zydow Polskisch”
Topic: “said that all Jews sent to Belzec were being killed” – Silberklang, page 347 (Silberklang continues: “another report in July told of murders by electrocution in Belzec. Stories of murder by electrocution were passed on from mid-April; . . . the rumors to this effect became widespread” (YVA, M.10.AR.1/472; AR.1/317; AR.3/27)

Date: Jul-42
Originator: unnamed refugee
Recipient: Chaim Kaplan
Published: diary
Topic: Sobibor - Jews from the Reich and Protectorate, from Polish villages, and from Lublin had been taken to Sobibor; camp’s underground economy, rations, purpose, sorting of goods by work detail, and location: “The great camp, which stands amid dense forests and swamps, is completely surrounded by barbed wire and is heavily guarded;” “the young and healthy ones . . . are taken for work” at “various crafts” in the camp—and that these prisoners inevitably succumb and die “but slowly. . . . The fate of the other segment is even more tragic—they are condemned to die at once.” This latter segment included, said Kaplan, the elderly, women, children, and people who were weak. The means of death, Kaplan said, was “wholesale . . . by poisoning with lethal gas or by electrocution.”

Date: 27-Jul-42
Originator: Schwarzbart
Recipients: WJ, Zygielbojm, JTA, Reuters
Published: various newspapers
Topic: cable saying "Germans have begun mass murder in the ghetto of Warsaw"; Schwarzbart listed source as "Minister of Interior Mr Mikolajczyk"

Date: 25-Jul-42
Originator: Delegatura
Topic: long report on Great Deportation "Pro memoria o sytuacji w kraju"

Date: 25 July 1942
Source: Dutch government in exile (not noted for its vanguard leadership on all this), from London
Published: Radio Orange (Dutch government in exile, not noted for its vanguard leadership on all this), from London 25 July 1942, that is, 4 months before the Allied statements recognizing the Final Solution began to be made:
Topic: deportations of Jews from Netherlands
Content: ”tens of thousands of Dutchmen have been dragged from the land of their fathers and forefathers, from the midst of the people among whom they had grown up, and to whom they belong. Not content with fleecing and plundering their victims, the Germans have condemned them to an infinitely worse fate." No longer so oblique in its references, just 4 days later, Orange Radio broadcast this: "Just how does it help the German war effort to herd together thousands of defenceless Jewish Poles and do away with them in gas chambers? How does it help the war when thousands of Jewish Dutchmen are dragged out of their country?" Here, in what Presser quotes, 2 is put beside 2 but the sum is yet to be stated. . . .
Also, in July 1942 ten Christian churches were protesting the deportation of Dutch Jews "into the German Reich and its dependencies," echoing the "work in the Reich" cover story and protesting even that. (The resettlement thesis for Dutch Jews is insane: already 15,000 had been deported to local Dutch work camps but now in 1942 suddenly according to the Germans the Jews need to be taken to Germany (!) for work - including the aged - Presser recounts a case of a 90 year old hauled off, the very young children, those in mental institutions cleared wholesale, etc.)
Source: Jacob Presser, The Destruction of the Dutch Jews, published 1965 in the Netherlands, 1969 US edition, p 147

Date: 26-Jul-42
Originator: Korbonski in Warsaw
Published: radio message
Topic: description of Great Deportation saying "the deportation of 6,000 was posted" (dropping word “daily” from source)

Date: 29-Jul-42
Publsihed: Dziennik Polski
Topic: "Dramatic news from the country: Mass executions of Poles and Jews"; poison gas at Belzec mentioned

Date: 29-Jul-42
Published: Dziennik Polski
Topic: "Jews From Warsaw Deported to the East" - 6k resettled a day - "two trains have already left, for death"

Date: 3-Aug-42

Published: illegal publication De Waarheid, (The Truth) for 3 August 1942, appeal to Dutch policemen:
Topic: fate of Dutch Jews seized in roundups
Content: ”think of your professional and human duty - arrest no Jews and only make a show of carrying out orders directed at them. Let them escape and go into hiding. Remember that every man, every woman and every child you arrest will be killed and that you are their murderer." It would be tempting to correlate this to knowledge of early Mauthausen deaths of young men "associated" with resistance activities except for that facts that this appeal came at the height of the first big raid/deportations, that the appeal referred to "every woman and every child," and that the appeal included the plea to assist in hiding - also the direct statement of assisting in murder. The paper also included an appeal to railroad workers: "Drivers! Remember that every slave train you drive is taking its cargo straight to the shambles."
Source: Jacob Presser, The Destruction of the Dutch Jews, published 1965 in the Netherlands, 1969 US edition, pp 146-147

Date: 8-Aug-42
Originator: Riegner telegram
From Wikipedia: "The Riegner Telegram was a message sent on 8 August 1942 by Gerhart Riegner, then Secretary of World Jewish Congress, Geneva. The cable 'confirmed the seemingingly inconclusive information about the [German] mass murder that had reached the West previously.' Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Mamillan Publishing Co., 1990. S. v. “Riegner Cable,” Yehuda Bauer.
Riegner was office manager of the WJC in Geneva. He was informed about the German plans for the final solution by German industrialist Eduard Schulte. Through his British and American diplomatic channels (Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise of the American Jewish Congress in New York and Sydney Silverman, a Jewish Member of Parliament and Chairman of the British Section, World Jewish Congress) Riegner sent the following message to his contacts via the British Foreign Office and the State Department in Washington: 'Received alarming report stating that, in the Fuehrer's Headquarters, a plan has been discussed, and is under consideration, according to which all Jews in countries occupied or controlled by Germany numbering 3½ to 4 millions should, after deportation and concentration in the East, be at one blow exterminated, in order to resolve, once and for all the Jewish question in Europe. Action is reported to be planned for the autumn. Ways of execution are still being discussed including the use of prussic acid. We transmit this information with all the necessary reservation, as exactitude cannot be confirmed by us. Our informant is reported to have close connexions with the highest German authorities, and his reports are generally reliable. Please inform and consult New York.'"

Date: 7-Aug-42
Originator: unknown
Recipient: Abraham Lewin
Published: no, diary entry
Topic: "the crematorium near Malkinia and Sokolov"

Date: 8-Aug-42
Originator: Gerhart Reigner, WJC representative in Geneva
Recipient: WJC in NYC and London
Published: cable
Topic: Hitler’s plan to exterminate Europe’s Jews, “prussic acid,” “exactitude cannot be confirmed”

Originator: K. Abraham
Recipient: Lewin
Published: no, diary entry
Topic: "Smolar rang Sokolow. He was told that those that are deported, or if they are deported to Tr., are going to their 'death.' The news that K. brought. In Warsaw there is a Jew by the name of Slawa who has brought reports of Treblinka. Fifteen kilometres before the station at Treblinka the Germans take over the train. When people get out of the trains they are beaten viciously. Then they are driven into huge barracks. For five minutes heart-rending screams are heard, then silence. The bodies that are taken out are swollen horribly. One person cannot get their arms round one of the bodies, so distended are they. Young men from among the prisoners are the gravediggers, the next day they too are killed. What horror."

Date: ?
Originator: unknown
Recipient: Stefan Ernest diary, YVA (member Warsaw Judenrat)
Topic: "The destination [Treblinka] was discovered at the beginning of the second half of August"

Date: 11-Aug-42
Originator: Korbonski in Warsaw
Recipients: given to Schwazbart and Zygielbojm on 15 Aug, Zygielbojm gave to JTA
Published: cable to London
Topic: "From the ghetto, 7,000 are taken away daily for slaughter. The president of the Jewish Council, Czerniakow, committed suicide."

Date: 15-Aug-42
Published: Reuters
Topic: Czerniakow's suicide citing Swiss source, 7k per day quota

Date: 17-Aug-42
Published: Current Information
Topic: 113,000 as of 7 Aug deported from Warsaw to Treblinka; fake shower story, "The gas chambers are mobile" [but per Matthew Ellard post at SSF: The AUG42 edition of Biuletyn Informacyjni was concerned with mobile extermination units. Treblinka II, the camp, is first mentioned in the October 23rd 1942 edition.] Informacja Bieżąca dated August 17, 1942, a mobile gas chamber is discussed:[Mattogno]
"After the departure of the steam engines, the Jews are forced to undress, supposedly for the bath; then they are led into the gas chamber and executed, whereupon they - sometimes still living - are buried in excavated pits. The pits are excavated by machine; the gas chamber is mobile and moves back and forth over the pits. The camp strength amounted to 40,000 Jews on August 5, about 5,000 are executed daily. The liquidation is carried out by Ukrainians under the leadership of SS-men. The operation in the Warsaw Ghetto is supposed to be completed by September of this year."

Date: 19-Aug-42
Originator: Gen Rowecki 6th Dept, Polish government, London
Published, no, 25 Aug dispatch
Topic: "Since July 22, liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto (400,000 inhabitants) has continued . . . Till now 5-6 and at present 15 thousand daily have been deported. Apparently, the majority is murdered in Belzec and Treblinka, a part to be assigned to labor . . . . To this point more than 150,000 have been deported."

Date: 20-Aug-42
Originator: Vendel, Swedish consul in Stettin
Recipient: Swedish government (Vendel met with German army officer, possibly part of von Tresckow resistance circle)
Topic: re: murder of 40k Lublin Jews at Belzec, "The Jews over fifty years of age and children under ten are especially subjected to extermination. The rest are left alive in order to fill the gap in the workforce; they will be exterminated as soon as they are no longer useful. Their property is confiscated; it mostly falls into the hands of SS men": description of deportations and fake delousing stories - "Delousing is in practice gassing, after which all are packed into previously prepared mass graves."

Date: uncertain, 1942, mid August as mss refers to 3 weeks of action
Originator: Samuel Puterman, member of Jewish police (married, wife and 2 year old missing on his return to Warsaw)
Published: no, typescript entitled “The Warsaw Ghetto”
Topic: quoting unnamed informant, a person caught by Jewish police in Warsaw 2 weeks prior to speaking with Peterman, reached Treblinka after two days, greeted on platform by a “sympathetic” German who spoke to arriving Jews about what awaited them, put to work sorting clothes (saved by his cousin), on fifth day managed to hide among clothes and escape in returning train: “For a few kilometers around Warsaw you could smell the gassed corpses. The local peasants told of things that were unbelievable but unfortunately true. Evidently when the naked Jews walk inside the building to bathe, they don’t know what is waiting for them up to the last second. The doors are open; everyone goes calmly inside; when the building is full they close the doors and instead of water turn on the gas. It lasts thirteen to twenty minutes. There are several such buildings. Some are constructed to tilt so the bodies can be dumped after the gassing; others only have trap doors. The Germans either burn the huge masses of bodies or bury the in gigantic pits; some are thrown into a kettle. The flesh is separated from the bones and made into soap.” Also says that a crematorium is being built, mentions Treblinka labor camp, says, “This is what the peasants told me,” says that Jews are also being taken to Treblinka from other countries. Source: Words to Outlive Us, pp 206-211; also p 215 Leon Najberg mss says that he learned of gassings of Jews at Treblinka; was told by Poles working in Oppel workshop in fall 1942

Originator: Jacob Rabinowicz

Recipient: Oyneg Shabes interview
Date: fought in uprising, escaped ghetto but seized and killed by Gestapo

Topic: extermination of Jews at Treblinka; Treblinka escapee; Rabinowicz was a journalist, his report led to Bund's Frydrych mission - Arad BST - “The Treblinka escapees who reached the Warsaw ghetto are mentioned in various sources. Among them were David Novodvorski, who returned to the Warsaw ghetto in August 1942, and the journalist Jacob Rabinowicz. As a result of Rabinowicz’s report on the extermination in Treblinka, the Jewish Labor party Bund, which was active in the Underground in the Warsaw ghetto, sent a few emissaries to Kosov and to okolow-Podlaski in the area of Treblinka to test the veracity of the report. In okolow-Podlaski the Bund emissaries met with another escapee from Treblinka by the name of Alriel Wallach and from him they received verification of Rabinowicz’s report. Following the reports of the escapees who reached Warsaw, there was no longer any doubt among the organizations and parties in the ghetto that the Jews who were sent to Treblinka were killed there. This information was one of the decisive factors in establishing the “Jewish Fighting Organization” in the Warsaw ghetto and in preparing for resistance and revolt.6  "
Footnote 6:  
6. Kogon, P. 229; Abraham Lewin, Pinkaso sbel Hamore Mibudia (“Notes from the Teacher of Jehudia”), Tel Aviv, 1969, P. 1I ; Gutman, pp. 242-243. “
See also 12-Sep-42.

Date: 28-Aug-42
Originator: David Nowodworski, Treblinka escapee
Recipient: Abraham Lewin, per Engelking (p 719), returned to ghetto 10 Aug
Published: no, diary entry
Topic: "Today we had a long talk with Dowid Nowodworski, who returned from Treblinka. He gave us the complete story of the sufferings that he endured from the first moment he was seized to the escape from the death camp and up to his return from Warsaw. His words confirm once again and leave no room for doubt that all the deportees, both those who have been seized and those who reported voluntarily, are taken to be killed and that no one is saved."
Comment: It was not until 7 Aug that Lewin, citing a phone call from Smolar, recorded in his diary that those being deported from Warsaw were being taken to their deaths at "Tr." and that "K." had told people in Warsaw about "a Jew by the name of Slawa who has brought reports of Treblinka" and the "huge barracks" there. Not until late Aug did Rabinowicz and Nowodworski, two Treblinka escapees, give accounts of the camp to the Warsaw Jewish underground.
However, in his notes on the Great Deportation, MM Kon of the Oyneg Shabes already in early Aug (on the 6th, the day before Lewin's entry, possibly aware of K's report) was writing of Treblinka as not quite yet a natural fact, reporting that those rounded up were being sent to the camp: "expelled thousands to the square from which these are to be transported in box-carts for extermination in a place called Treblinka" (TLWHADWH, page 80). Among the circle of OS leaders it would appear that within 2 weeks of TII's opening awareness of the camp and its function was spreading. Later in the month Kon wrote of "the extermination camp" now as though it was of course where people were sent (18 Aug, page 82).
Also on 7 Sep, over two months before the Wasser Steaming Report, Kon was writing, again as though it were common knowledge, of "Thousands of our brethren at the brush factory [who] have been shipped away the camp, where they entered the gas cambers the same day," not sure of his sources for this. (page 83)
Continuing with early reports about Treblinka reaching Warsaw: interesting that in his 6 Aug note MM Kon is already writing this: ". . . I learn that many of [his friends and acquaintances] had been taken to that unknown but well known destination where all go to be cruelly slaughtered," further expressing his early understanding of "a place called Treblinka." (page 81) Again, it is early September when Kon states that extermination at "the death-camp at Treblinka" takes place in "the gas chambers." (page 83) For "September 6th-13th" Kon makes an elliptical entry that "The savages are still chasing, shooting with machine-guns or killing with gas," noting further that "the SD tormentors will decide who shall stay as workers in the shops and who shall be deported to Treblnka or shot on the spot." (page 84)
Summing up, on 1 Oct, Kon concludes that "before the onset of the Hitlerite extermination and the operation of the Treblinka death-camp, Warsaw Jewry counted 390,000 souls; now - the number is about 40,000. In two months they murdered 350,000, of which about 50,000 are believed to have been killed in the city itself, while Treblinka claimed 300,000." He says that at Treblinka "between six and eight thousand were being killed there daily, the bodies thrown into pits dug by machines to the depth of 30 meters" and notes that "some grave-workers escaped . . . and reported to us, the survivors, details of the 'action,'" including the detail that victims were told that they "are to go to a bath after they take off their clothes. With cynical speeches they drive in some six to eight thousand people into the gas chambers, where they are dead in 5 or 6 minutes and, swollen, are being thrown into the pits." (pages 85-86) (Some of these details - number of victims and time til death - have been corrected, e.g., the current estimate for those killed in roundups and on the Umschlagplatz is 10,380, not 50,000.)
Yehiel Gorny also wrote about this period at the beginning of the Great Deportation and the fairly rapid emergence of knowledge about Treblinka, in an undated note (R II/237), saying of the roundups during that "Jews felt instinctively that they were being driven like sheep to certain death, although the frightful name of Treblinka was not yet known in the first few days." (page 95)

Date: 31-Aug-42
Originator: Polish Undergound
Recipient: Polish government in London
Published: no, cable "Text of the cable": 15k deported daily to 4 execution sites

Date: 31-Aug-42
Originator: Bund London by courier
Published: yes, in mid Nov, see 20 Sep entry below
Recipient: "Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto"

Date: ?
Recipient: reached London by courier, mid Nov
Topic: "Anti-Jewish Action 1942" with enclosures

Date: 8-Sep-42
Published: Current Information
Topic: "Treblinka extermination camp, the place where the Jews are being killed"; "The extermination of the Jews is now carried out in a way that is completely independent of the old camp" - description of trains, supposed "shower to bathe," "groups of 300-500 people" "gassed" in shower building at a time, delayed action of gas, mention of escapee - "The extermination of the Jews takes place entirely independently from the events in the camp. The steam engine pushes the cars with the Jews under the ramp, all in sequence. The Ukrainians pull the Jews out of the cars and lead them to the 'bath' in the bathhouse. This is a building surrounded by barbed wire. They enter in groups of 300 to 500 persons. Each group is immediately locked up hermetically and gassed. Of course, this gas is not immediately effective, for the Jews have to walk to the pits afterwards, which are about ten to twenty meters away and 30 m deep. There they lose consciousness and fall into the pits, and the excavator sprinkles a thin layer of earth upon them. Then the next group follows." [Mattogno]

Date: 10-Sep-42
Originator: Polish Undergound
Recipient: Polish government in London
Published: no, cable
Topic: "Text to be sent": 300k Jews from Warsaw murdered, only 40k intended to be left after 1 Oct

Date: 18-Sep-42
Originator: Delegatura
Recipient: Polish government in London, rec'd 9 Jan 43?
Published: no, cable
Topic: "Text to be sent": only 33k left in Warsaw ghetto

Date: sometime after 13-Sep-42
Originator: Abraham Krzepicki, Treblinka escapee
Topic: arrives back in Warsaw ghetto, interview with Auerbach starts in Dec-42

Date: 20-Sep-42

Originator: Zalman Fryrdrych, based on Aug fact-finding effort

Published: Oif der Vach, (special edition of Bund newspaper), article written by Leon Feiner

Topic: "The Jews of Warsaw Are Killed in Treblinka" - resettlements are "a lie" - information comes from "the stories of the Poles and of those Jews who succeeded in escaping from the trains or from Treblinka" - fake "baths" - "digging machine" - "The bath was actually a house of murder. The floor in this barrack opened up and the people fell into a machine" - opinions of escapees vary: some say the victims "were gassed," others say "they were killed by electrical current." 20k killed a day - Treblinka one of 3 camps, one near Pinsk, Belzec near Lublin (according to Gutman, Frydrych set out sometime in Aug, maybe early, met Uziel Wallach, Treblinka escapee, in Sokolov)
Also: Marek Edelman gives this sequence of events (http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/ ... ising.html) - “So that we might learn conclusively and in detail about the fate of the human transports leaving the ghetto, Zalmen Frydrych (Zygmunt) was ordered to follow one of the transports to the ‘Aryan side’. His journey ‘to the East’, however, was a short one, for it took only three days. Immediately after leaving the ghetto walls he established contact with an employee of the Warsaw Danzig [Gdanski] Terminal working on the Warsaw--Malkinia line. They travelled together in the transport's wake to Sokolow where, Zygmunt was told by local railroad men, the tracks forked out, one branch leading to Treblinka. It proved that every day a freight train carrying people from Warsaw travelled in that direction and invariably returned empty. No transports of food were ever seen on this line. Civilians were forbidden to approach the Treblinka railroad station.
This in itself was conclusive proof that the people brought to Treblinka were being exterminated somewhere in the vicinity. In addition, Zygmunt met two fugitives from the death camp the following morning. They were two Jews, completely stripped of their clothes, and Zygmunt met them on the Sokolow market place and obtained the full details of the horrible procedure. Thus it was not any longer a question of rumours, but of facts established by eyewitness accounts (one of the fugitives was our comrade Wallach).
After Zygmunt's return we published the second issue of On Guard with a detailed description of Treblinka. But even now the population stubbornly refused to believe the truth. They simply closed their eyes to the unpleasant facts and fought against them with all the means at their disposal.”

Date: 27-Sep-42

Originator: Lewin, diary, p 186

Topic: Rabinowicz says Jews being killed at Treblinka with steam: met at Wasser’s, “Rabinowicz was there, a relative of Rabinowicz’s, who escaped from Treblinka . . . ‘Graves for the Fuhrer.’ The women go naked into the bath-house. The condition of the dead bodies. What are they killing them with? With simple vapour (steam).”
Also Lewin’s entry for 25 September 1942: “Someone else has come back from Treblinka, a certain Rabinowicz, and what he told us made our hair stand on end. Everyone without exception is exterminated.” p 185 (according to Polonsky, fn 355 p 290, Rabinowicz was 25, worked in same workshop as Lewin, also note that “According to Hirsch Wasser, Rabinowicz’s testimony served as the basis for an account of Treblinka prepared by Oneg Shabbes and added as App. 17 to the report presented in Likwidacja zydowskiej Warszawy, pp 30-34.” Hillel Seidman (Zeidman) cited for information on Rabinowicz.
Also Lewin’s entry for 25 September 1942: “Someone else has come back from Treblinka, a certain Rabinowicz, and what he told us made our hair stand on end. Everyone without exception is exterminated.” p 185 Rabinowicz is the person referred to in the 21 September entry, pp 183-184. “A Jew has returned to our workshop who was taken away from here three weeks ago and worked as a gravedigger in Treblinka for nine or eleven days before escaping in a train-wagon in which the martyrs’ belongings were being taken away. He tells horrific and shattering things. In any case we have another eyewitness to the fate of those who are deported."

Date: 2-Oct-42
Originator: Delegatura forwarding Bund message
Recipient: Polish government in London, rec'd Dec 42
Topic: 300k Jews of Warsaw exterminated, only handful of Bund members had survived, protest against silence of Free World

Date: 5-Oct-42
Published: Current Information
Topic: On October 5, 1942, the Polish underground newspaper Informacja bieżąca (Current Information), circulated the following report: [Mattogno]
"Treblinka. The death camp is once more in operation. Transports arrive from the entire country (lastly Radom, Siedlce, Międzyrzec). Presently not 20 but 10 trains are allowed to approach at a time, for it takes a long time until the bodies of those who died on the way (20-30%) have been unloaded. The gas chambers function as follows: Outside of the barracks is a 20 HP internal combustion engine, which is in operation around the clock. The end of its exhaust pipe is mounted in a wall of the barracks; the exhaust gases, with the admixture of toxic fluids, which have been specially mixed into the fuel of the engine, kill the people locked up in the barracks. Besides the Jewish workers, there is a Jewish orchestra as well as a group of Jewish women in the camp area with whom the staff enjoys itself.
Up to the end of August, 320,000 Jews were exterminated in Treblinka."

Date: 15-Oct-42
Originators: escapees from Treblinka
Recipient: Emanuel Ringelblum
Published: no, diary entry backdated to 15 Oct
Topic: On October 15, 1942, Emmanuel Ringelblum noted in his "ghetto chronicle": [Mattogno]"Information from the gravediggers (Jakob Rabinowicz), the Jews from Stoczek, who have escaped from the trains loaded with objects, gold, and cash. Congruent description of the 'bath,' the gravediggers with golden patches on the knees.
Method of killing: gas, steam, electricity”
Also as: "the news about the gravediggers (Rabinowicz, Jacob), the news from Stok who escaped from the wagons . . . the unanimous description of the 'bath,' the Jewish gravediggers with yellow patches on their knees. - The method of killing: gas, steam, electricity"

Date: mid-Oct-42
Originator: Peretz Opoczynski
Published: no, Oyneg Shabes report
Topic: "giant electric chair" in Treblinka

Date: mid-Oct-42
Originator: Polish consulate in Istanbul
Recipient: Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Published: no, cable
Topic: "Jewish activists in Istanbul received completely reliable news that the Germans have begun the speeded physical liquidation of the ghetto in Warsaw and other cities in Poland", victims processed into fertilizer and fat

Date: mid-Oct-42
Originators: survivors of Treblinka
Recipients: Gisi Fleischmann's Working Group (Slovakia)
Published: no, letters
Topic: "lethal fumes" killing Jews in "facilities" "near Belzec"

Date: 23-Oct-42
Published: Biuletyn Informacyjni - Treblinka II, the camp, is mentioned in the October 23rd 1942 edition. [Matthew Ellard]
Date: Fall-42
Originator: anonymous Zionist activist in Warsaw, letter to friend in Palestine
Published: Bracha Habas, Mikthavim min ha-getaot (Tel Aviv 1943, in Hebrew); in Kerenji, ed, Jewish Responses to Persecution, Vol. IV, 1942-1943, pages 23-25
Topic: in coded language – “Lately I have been feeling ill. . . . I have a sickness of the lungs, and I am spitting blood. I regret deeply that this prevent me from entering into a marriage agreement with my beloved Molodet [homeland]. . . . Gerushovich [gerush: deportation] and Tevahovich [tevah: slaughter] his brother convey their greetings. Ami [my people] is off and gone with the help of the Yekes {the Germans} to Klyonyov [annihilation?] . . .”

Date: Nov?
Topic: Rudolph Reder escapes from Belzec

Date: 9-Nov-42
Originators: Minister Mikolajcczyk
Recipient: Delegatura in Poland
Published: no, cable request for information
Topic: are deportations of 7k a day continuing?

Topic: 15-Nov-42
Originators: various witnesses
Recipients: Hersh Wasser, Eliyahu Gutkowski, Oybneg Shabes
Published: JTA Bulletin, November 1942, also Dziennek Polski; later - The Black Book of Polish Jewry in 1943, summary in NYT Aug 1943, version published in Switzerland in 1944, Polish government submission to IMT (Grubach’s single source on steam chambers passed off as convergence); included in Kermish’s collection
Topic: "The Liquidation of Jewish Warsaw"; see Kassow p 311 - report on Great Deportation (Wasser), witness accounts Treblinka (Gutkowski) at behest of ZZN, overseen and edited by Ringelblum, smuggled to London by Karski, steam chambers (compare: AK Bureau of Information published brochure "The Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto" by Antoni Szymanowski)

Date: 23-Nov-42
Originator: Karski ?
Recipient: Minister Mikolajczyk
Topic: message to Delegatura that Wasser’s report had arrived in London

Date: 24-Nov-42
Originator: Oyneg Shabes report on Treblinka
Recipients: also to British Section WJC, Foreign Office JTA, others
Published: Dziennik Polski on 26 Nov
Topic: release of contents of reports that had arrived on 23 Nov

Date: 27-Nov-42
Originator: Schwartzbart
Recipient: special session of National Council
Published: BBC, many newspapers
Topic: resolution protesting Nazi crimes "against the Polish antion and in particular against the Jewish population in Poland"; over 1 million Jews murdered

Date: 2-Dec-42
Originator: anonymous
Published: Oyf der vakh, no. 2 (Warsaw) ); in Kerenji, ed, Jewish Responses to Persecution, Vol. IV, 1942-1943, pages 26-28
Topic: “There is no doubt that Hitlerism has set for itself the goal of destroying all Jews. It is just doing it gradually, in stages . . . We all know the truth about the gigantic slaughterhouse at Treblinka, where hundreds of thousands of fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters, sons and daughters have been killed in such an inhumane and refined-bestial manner. . . . Remember the last action – when people were snatched up ‘for work’ in Lublin. ‘Tailors’ were needed, the elderly and children were snatched up. . . . they really were sent to Lublin. We recall the ‘letters,’ the ‘certain’ greetings from Brest, Minsk, Bialystok. . . . We recall that in the Lublin region lies Belzec, where tens of thousands of Jews have been murdered on the Treblinka model.”

Date: 2-Dec-42
Originator: Karski
Recipients: Zygielbojm, Schwarzbart
Published: meeting in London

Date: 8-Dec-42
Originator: Tanhum Berman
Published: Der veg (Mexico City, in Yiddish); in Kerenji, ed, Jewish Responses to Persecution, Vol. IV, 1942-1943, pages 29-30
Topic: “. . . news reached us ten days ago that the mad dog – may his name and memory be blotted out! – ordered his executioners to accelerate the killing of our brothers and sisters in the countries he has occupied and to reduce their number by half by the end of 1942 . . . But only a few days passed and Job’s first tidings already proved ‘obsolete.’ By the end of this year, not half, but all Jews in Europe – without exception – must be offered up as a sacrifice to the insatiable blood lust of the Nazi hyena into which the sadistic parlor painter has transformed the nation of poets and philosophers. . . . ”

Date: 17-Dec-42
Published: UN declaration on mass execution of Jews

Date: Dec-42 to Jan-43 [Holocaust Controversies White Paper says Oct-42]
Originator: Abraham Krzepicki, Treblinka escapee
Recipient: Rachel Auerbach, Oyneg Shabes
Published, no, interview gas chamber
Topic: Krzepicki deported to Treblinka 25 Aug, in camp 2 weeks, sorting detail, wrote out detailed plan of camp, escaped 13 Sep, witness to Meir Berliner stabbing of Max Bielas (also in other testimonies) (joined ZOB, died in uprising) – On Krzepicki's testimony the HC Critique says (p 62) that Auerbach took it in October 1942, whilst in In the Fields of Treblinka, in Donat's book, Auerbach writes that ‘He was the one whose memoirs of eighteen days spent in Treblinka took me weeks to record and to edit back in the winter of 1942-43’ (p 25), and Donat's introduction to Krzepicki's testimony says, ‘The leaders of the ghetto underground archives (under the historian Emanuel Ringelblum) entrusted Rachel Auerbach with the task of recording the testimony given by Krzepicki (December, 1942–January, 1943).’” (p 77) HC is going by the date in Sakowska (ed), Archiwum Ringelbluma. One would imagine that there dated references and materials in the archive that trump Auerbach's memory in 1945. Seems right. Note: Auerbach, 1945: “As far back as 1942, we knew the basic facts about the Treblinka murder enterprise; we had the information from Krzepicki and other escapees.” (p 26)

Date: 1-Feb-43
Originators: hearsay from French and Belgian POWs at Rawa Ruska
Recipients: PRD Stockholm to PID London
Topic: "The Germans themselves, they added, boasted that they had constructed gas chambers where Jews were systematically killed and buried"

Date: 1-Aug-43
Originator: David Milgroim, escapee from Treblinka in 42
Recipient: report in Slovakia, passed to OSS in Istanbul early 44
Published: Canadian Jewish Chronicle, Jan 44
Topic: "poison gas"

Dariusz Stola, "Early News of the Holocaust from Poland,” Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, academic.edu
Harrison et al, Critique
Kassow, Who Will Write Our History?
Arad, BST Gutman The Jews of Warsaw
Engelking & Leociak, The Warsaw Ghetto
Bauer, American Jewry and the Holocaust
Kermish, To Live with Hope and Die with Hope
Silberklang, Gates of Tears
others as noted
Last edited by Statistical Mechanic on Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:04 pm, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: A Note on Early Reports

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Sun Apr 19, 2015 8:19 pm

An additional, summary report from July 1943 (Plotnicka's "last letter" from Bedzin) is discussed in the "Damning Evidence Part IV" thread starting with this post.
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Re: A Note on Early Reports

Post by Kleon_I XYZ Contagion » Thu Mar 22, 2018 3:03 pm

Speaking of early reports, was this ever been posted?

http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/e7497fea ... 9d697a:JCR

A 16-page booklet, a memorandum from the Polish-exiled government in London to the UN governments, in December 10th 1942 referring to the mass extermination of the Jews in occupied Poland.
According to experts and scholars, the 10 stages of every genocide are
Classification Symbolization Discrimination Dehumanization Organization Polarization Preparation Persecution Extermination
... and finally the 10th stage:
http://www.genocidewatch.org/genocide/t ... ocide.html
XYZ Contagion (‘Because the truth is contagious‘), an investigative/research political and historical website, deals also with the Srebrenica Genocide

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Re: A Note on Early Reports

Post by Statistical Mechanic » Thu Mar 22, 2018 4:21 pm

excellent, thanks, I am pretty sure we hadn't had that full report posted here
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Re: A Note on Early Reports

Post by Jeffk 1970 » Thu Mar 22, 2018 4:37 pm

Kleon_I XYZ Contagion wrote:Speaking of early reports, was this ever been posted?

http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/e7497fea ... 9d697a:JCR

A 16-page booklet, a memorandum from the Polish-exiled government in London to the UN governments, in December 10th 1942 referring to the mass extermination of the Jews in occupied Poland.

Thanks, Kleon, finally managed to get it downloaded. I’ll read it tonight when I get a chance, I think I’ve seen excerpts of it.
“I noticed this morning that a group of our Landsberg friends have been given their freedom this morning. These include...Schubert, Jost and Nosske. Schubert confessed to...supervising the execution of about 800 Jews...(referring to the order to clean up Simferopol)...Schubert managed to kill all the Jews (by Christmas 1941). Nosske was the one the other defendants called the biggest bloodhound....
Noel, Noel, what the hell.”
Benjamin Ferencz in a letter to Telford Taylor, December 1951