The Lublin Ghetto

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David Green
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The Lublin Ghetto

Postby David Green » Sat Aug 05, 2017 2:52 pm

Hello gentlemen,

I have a few questions for you regarding the Lublin ghetto. I am particularly interested in the period 1st September 1939 to August 1942.

I will assume (I understand assuming anything is dangerous and I am sure you will put me straight if I am wrong) for now the ghetto was a predominantly a Jewish neighbourhood before the war?

What was life like in the ghetto before it was sealed, was there adequate food, water etc.? Was there a large Jewish population in Lublin before the war? Was Lublin the type of town Jewish refugees from other parts of Poland would seek refuge in during the early stages of the German invasion?

When did the Germans begin forcing Jews into the ghetto? Were special ID passes required to enter and exit the ghetto before it was sealed? When was the ghetto sealed? When did the round ups for deportation to the death camps begin?

Can anyone here recommend a good book dealing with the Lublin ghetto or links to wartime maps of the place?

Thank you in advance,

David

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Sat Aug 05, 2017 6:57 pm

I am traveling and don't have information with but there is a book that fits what you're looking for, which I've read and is sitting on my bookshelves - I can post the info when I am back home Monday. The author my be Radzik but I might be thinking of something else with that name.
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Sat Aug 05, 2017 7:06 pm

Yes I found notes in Dropbox and will post them when I am in my hotel room tonight. But indeed the author is Radzik - it is a Polish-English bilingual book with many images- listed at Amazon.
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby David Green » Sat Aug 05, 2017 7:15 pm

Thank you very much, Statistical Mechanic, I look forward to reading whatever information you have. One branch of my family never made it past Lublin, hence my curiosity.

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Sat Aug 05, 2017 8:59 pm

Radzik's book is a cross between a "coffee table" book and a historical study. It's worth picking up if you can afford it. Here are my notes. I am sorry about your family - and hope this thread leads to some information about the situation that you can use; Lublin was not a good place during the war, needless to say. These notes are matter of fact, extracted from just two sources, Radzik and the USHMM Encyclopedia. My interest at the time I made them was the context for Majdanek. In another thread I once wrote that if I were younger, and read German and Polish, I'd make a study of Majdanek-in-Lublin, a topic that is crying out for regional examination, given Globocnik's economic and penal apparatus in the city as well as the large local Jewish population (in contrast to Mauthausen), the roundups beginning March 1942, Lublin's relationship to Einsatz Reinhard as a whole, and the local ghetto, Majdan Tatarski. The study would look at which groups were economic and political winners under the occupation. Lublin's - and Majdanek's - part in pacification and control of the Polish population would form another set of issuese. A comparative study, looking at regional developments in various cities with KLs, would also be very fruitful, I'd think.

R – Tadeusz Radzik, Zagłada Lubelskiego Getta / The Extermination of the Lublin Ghetto (2007)
U – USHMM Encyclopedia Vol II Part A

Germany occupied Lublin 18 September 1939; German census 25 October listed 37,054 Jews; German census 24-25 February 1940 listed 40,534 Jews (R81)
German census of 1 September 1940 was 42,130 Jews (in-migrations); estimated Jewish population of city was 45,000 by November 1940 (R82)

26 October 1939, day after German census, Frank directive on forced labor for Jews between 16-60 years old; 12 December 1939 HSSPF Krüger issued “second executive directive” stating 2 years term for forced labor with extensions possible; 24 October 1939 Kehillah negotiated with Germans a 100/day supply of laborers to halt random street roundups (numbers increased steadily but roundups by Wehrmacht and German SD and SS officers continued); Kehillah formed Labor Office (R95); by December the daily laborers quota was 400-500 with most being sent to Lipowa 7 – by May 1940 – 600/day and increased after that (R96)

28 November 1939 Frank order to form Jewish Councils; quote from the directive, “The jewish council is obliged to take orders from the German Authorities through its chairman or his deputy. It is responsible for their conscientious and full execution. All jews and jewesses should conform to its instructions while carrying out German orders.” (sic); Henryk Bekker (engineer) head of Council with attorney Marek Alten as deputy (R88)

December 1939 Globocnik established what would be Lublin’s largest labor camp at Lipowa 7 – barracks were built there, and the SS organized a complex of workshops – the first Jewish workers for the shop were rounded up 4 December 1939; the first Jews working here did not live in the camp but came daily for work; in January 1940 about 1,200 craftsmen from Lublin, Warsaw, and Radom were quartered in the camp and in February Jewish POWs of the Polish Army were added (R98)

12 December 1939 work duty now applied to Jews age 14-60 – Krüger’s 2-year duty order (see above) (R96)

Jewish POWs from Polish Army (1,340) brought to Lublin from Stalags in February 1940 (R82)
Around this time an assembly-selection point was set up at Lipowa 7 for distribution of incoming Jews to labor camps in the district (R82)

22 April 1940 Globocnik set up department for Jewish affairs focused on labor (R96)

24 July 1940 Frank decree defining Jew more strictly than Nuremberg laws (R82)

25 July 1940 Employment Office closed and replaced by German Arbeitsamt, which moved regulation of Jewish labor to civilian employment offices; workshops for Jews doing work duty initially were carpenters, capmakers, furriers, tailors, upholsterers, shoemakers, tanners (R96); Sara Ehrlichmen memoirs quote “The Germans organized workplaces: one, run by the German army, in Lipowa Street; another run by the Gendarmerie in Ogrodowa Street, and the third one managed by the SS” employing mostly refugees who’d come to Lublin; labor duty started out in 1941 as 1 day per week but expanded after that; “The camps of forced labor were created in the city. They were situated at 7 Lipowa Street, the former airfield of the Lublin Aeroplane Factory (Plage-Laśkiewicz), 6 Probostwo Street, 2 Browarna Street, and 4 Ogrodowa Street.” (R97)

December 1940-January 1941 – per the USHMM, about 3,000 Jewish POWs from the Polish army, who came from areas of Polish then occupied by the USSR, were brought to Lipowa 7 and confined in a POW camp there; some subsequently were transferred to Majdanek to build the camp (U675)

meeting of 9 March 1941 Germans decided to reduce Jewish population in Lublin to maximum of 25,000; 9,200 Jews displaced over next several days, without warning to Jewish Council, to small towns in Lublin district (R gives names and numbers, R82); Jews being displaced were assembled at the old airfield and consisted mostly of elderly, sick and very young who could not work; transports carried out by PB306; part of the motivation was lack of flats for Wehrmacht officers (Poles pushed out and moved into flats vacated by displaced Jews) – over April through November another 2,588 Jews were displaced from Lublin (R83) – USHMM gives 12,000 Jews rounded up and deported to 11 separate localities during March; Order Police also formed at this time (U675)

on 20 March 1941 (USHMM gives 24 March 1941)Zörner (district governor of Lublin) issued directive forming ghetto (quote “a closed residential quarter”) in old Jewish neighborhood around Castle Hill by 5 April 1941 (R83); 25kg luggage per person; ghetto not fenced at this time; 1,695 Polish families removed; early 1941 estimated Lublin Jewish population was 43,195 (influx of POWs and Jews from small towns), 41,921 ration cards issued in March 1941; following the March displacements a census showed Jewish population at 34,149 – average of 4.59 persons per room in ghetto, “for the most part devoid of a sewage system or running water” (R84); about 2,021 Jews out of 40,083 lived outside the ghetto in October 1941; June 1941 Zörner decree for 3m high fence around ghetto (not carried out) (R85); 31 March 1942 meeting Zörner wanting to find ways to induce 15,000 additional Jews to leave Lublin; the ghetto had room for 20,000 people, the housing department figured out to squeeze in another 6,000 – but another 10,000 moved in; strict curfew imposed as of 1 May 1941 (U675)

meeting in Lublin 17 October 1941 quote from meeting decision “The Jews, except for indispensable craftsmen etc., are to be evacuated out of Lublin. To begin with, 1,000 Jews will be moved beyond the Bug River. The plan will be executed by the commander of the SS and police.” (R85)

9 December 1941 because of typhus epidemic Zörner proclaimed death penalty for any Jew caught outside ghetto (U676)

25 February 1942 decision taken to divide Lublin ghetto into A and B sections, B being smaller and for working Jews – the two sections were separated with barbed wire – “In ghetto ‘A’, there were constant nightly selections. Jews were driven out of their homes and [R85] made to parade past the tables at which Germans and Jewish policemen were sitting and checking their papers.” Even craftsmen working at Lipowa 7 were on occasion taken away. (R86)

goods seized during a number of pillaging actions were taken by Globocnik – furs and textiles were repaired in workshops at Lipowa 7 (R95)

March 1942 Germans seized and shot Jankiel Nisenbaum who had been editor of Lubliner Tugblat (R86)

great action from 17-31 March 1941 – transports of about 1,400 people a day to Bełzec – week 1: about 10,000; week 2: about 8,000; only Jews with proper stamped card from Sipo not taken (“stamp Jews” aka the J-Ausweis); conducted as follows: Ukrainian auxiliaries surrounded a block, then SD officers went house to house; old and infirm shot on the spot; Jews in hiding shot; Jews were assembled in a yard in Tagowa Street where 2,500 ill and old people were shot; only ghetto B remained for the time; 15kg luggage for deportees; marched 3km to a synagogue, departed from railway siding next to slaughterhouse; operation overseen by SS men Worthoff, Walter, Sturm, and Knitzky, 108 children murdered in orphanage (R86)
report from Polish resistance quote “The details of the operation are terrifying, e.g., 140 children from the orphanage were shot by a single man. It took place in a ravine near the city slaughterhouse (in Kalinowszczyzna). . . . The rest was dispatched, mostly to Bełżec. Those death trains made several rounds each.” (R86)
forces involved in the action were subordinated to SSPF Lublin Globocnik; the forces involved were SS detachments and 200 Trawnikis (U676)
people trying to flee were captured and taken to Grajer’s restaurant where they were shot (R86); “Hundreds of Jews were left dead on the streets” as the Trawnikis drank heavily and exercised great cruelty (U676)
“pillage valuables were gathered (in the storehouse at 27 Chopina Street)” (R86)
31 March 1942 Worthoff, Walter, Sturm, and Knitzky addressed the Jewish Council and reduced membership from 24 to 12; informed members that only Sipo issued J-Ausweis would be recognized (R86); for April 1942 only 2,500 ration cards were issued (R86); new members appointed by Germans – Marek Alten (close to Germans) made chairman and later took charge of Order Police (R89); Bekker promised senior position in place of new destination; taken next day to Bełżec and murdered (R90)
massive pillaging operation accompanied the deportations as Jews had to leave behind all but 15kg of movable goods; “The central storehouse for the loot was situated at 27 Chopina Street”; also a final tribute was demanded on 4 April 1942 – 800,000 zlotys in gold – when it was delivered, the Germans shot the 4 Jewish Council members who delivered it (R95) (USHMM has 500,000 zlotys and 2 Jewish Council members U676)
“The deportation Aktion continued until April 16, 1942. . . . In total, at least 25,000 Jews were murdered during the entire period of the Aktion.” (U676)
about 3,000-4,000 Jews remained in ghetto B with J-Ausweis and an equal number of illegals (U676)

14-15 April 1942 the Germans evicted about 5,000-6,000 Poles from the Majdan Tatarski suburb on the outskirts of Lublin; old ghetto to be mostly razed; 16 April 1942 Zörner directed creation of new ghetto at Majdan Tatarski – a quote “residential area” for Jews holding J-Ausweis only; ghetto fenced and had just one gate – with passage for Jews to their jobs in Lublin area workshops and camps; officially 3,300 J-Ausweis Jews permitted in new ghetto (R109); but illegals also came – population reached 7,000; Majdan Tatarski surrounded by double barbed wire; promoted as Musterghetto (model ghetto) but the living quarters accommodated just 1,800 so people lived in attics, cellars, open camps; 2,500 ration cards only made available (R110)

20 April 1942 surprise identity check in Majdan Tatarski netted 3,000 Jews without J-Ausweis; “The old, infirm and children were shot on the spot. Another 1,200 people were sent to the Majdanek camp, from where a large part were taken to the nearby Krępiec Forest and shot. Those who remained in Majdanek stayed outdoors for several days.” (R111); USHMM has 4,000 Jews allowed to return to Majdan Tatarski after selection and 3,000 sent to Majdanek and shot (U676)

7 May 1942 ration card lists showed 3,857 Jews living in Majdan Tatarski; guarded by Blue Police, Germans, and Jewish Order Police; frequent searches for illegals (R111)

May 1942 transports – one from Theresienstadt and one from Reich including Weimar – brought 3,000 more Jews to Lublin city – many sent to Majdan Tatarski, some to Madjanek (U677)

meeting of police in Cracow on 18 June 1942 “the state secretary of the General Gouvernement, W. Engler, representing Lublin district as the head of the district governor’s office, stated: ‘The Jewish question in Lublin has been resolved. The former Jewish quarter has been evacuated and the Jews who were fit for work have been placed outside the city in a special area.’” (R86)

19 July 1942 announcement only J-Ausweis holders could remain in Majdan Tatarski – also Himmler visited Lublin that day and set deadline for Krüger to liquidate Jewish population in General Gouvernement by 31 December 1942: quote “no persons of Jewish origin must remain in the General Gouvernement, unless they stay in concentration camps in Warsaw, Cracow, Częstochowa, Lublin and Radom.” (R111)

Majdan Tatarski – in August a group of Jews arriving from Warsaw were denied entry and taken to Majdanek; in September Jewish doctors from small towns were denied entry and taken to Majdanek and leader shot there (R111)

2 September 1942 German action in Majdan Tatarski which was surrounded in early morning by SS units who gathered several 1000 people in a square and checked IDs – cards played little role with old, young, infirm chosen for “displacement” (R112); result was 1,200 taken out ghetto, half women and children, some of those displaced were taken to Piaski, others to Majdanek (these latter were shot in Krępiec Forest) (R113); 500 elderly and children murdered en route to Majdanek; 500 sent to various labor camps (U677)

25 October 1942 1,000 taken from Majdan Tatarski to Majdanek, including many Jewish Council workers and all employees of the Arbeitsamt (R113)

28 October 1942 HSSPF Krüger announcement of ghettos in General Gouvernement in which Jews will still be permitted didn’t include Lublin among the 8 remnant ghettos (U677)

Erntefest – involved mostly Jews held in Majdanek but Jews were also included from the Flugplatz, the Sportplatz at 4 Ogrodowa Street, from the Castle prison, and from other workplaces (R113)

9 November 1942 liquidation of Majdan Tatarski – carried out by Germans and Lithuanian and Ukrainian auxiliaries (latter commanded by Johann Lange) – 3,000 people assembled in square – all “taken to the Madjanek camp, where the old people and children were killed in the gas chambers after a selection, on the third day. Men fit for work were kept as prisoners in the camp. Young and healthy women were also employed at sorting clothes in the Flugplatz camp. Several hundred people were murdered in the ghetto itself,” including Alten, the head of the Order Service, hospital patients. Following the action, prisoners from the Castle and Jewish POWs were made to search and clean up Majdan Tatarski, collecting the abandoned Jewish property, under command of Konopka. (R113)
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby nickterry » Sat Aug 05, 2017 11:48 pm

I don't have the link immediately to hand, but the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos vols I and II are both now online as free PDF downloads - googling should throw up the ushmm.org web pages for the series, and a sidebar link to the download page. Vol II will have an entry for the Lublin ghetto, along with other Nazi-established ghettos. Vol I is WVHA-run concentration camps (Dachau etc) and their subcamps (eg Kaufering).

Encyclopedias like this one are the most realistic expectations for an accessible source - the Radzik book StatMech mentions is pretty hard to get hold of.

Googling Lublin ghetto throws up numerous basic sources. Slogging back through the pages from the first few hits finds an 8 page summary by the late Polish historian Robert Kuwalek, who was long associated with the Belzec and Majdanek museums, in English
http://www.benchmark.co.il/lublin/The%2 ... alek-e.pdf

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Sun Aug 06, 2017 12:13 am

USHMM download mentioned by Nick here: you have to complete a form to be allowed to download, IIRC.

The Radzik book is indeed listed but unavailable at Amazon.
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby David Green » Sun Aug 06, 2017 3:14 pm

Thank you both for your help. The USHMM material has been downloaded and by the look of things will keep me busy for a while.

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Jeffk 1970 » Sun Aug 06, 2017 3:37 pm

Yeah, I downloaded them as well but I don't expect to get to them until sometime next year.

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby bluespaceoddity » Mon Aug 07, 2017 3:20 am

David Green wrote:Thank you very much, Statistical Mechanic, I look forward to reading whatever information you have. One branch of my family never made it past Lublin, hence my curiosity.
Not exactly what you asked for but since you mention family connections and may therefore be after very specific personal information it may also be worthwhile to contact organisations such as Lublin based and focussed Teatr NN and/or Studnia Pamięci and/or people operating likeminded research groups.

http://teatrnn.pl/en/
http://biblioteka.teatrnn.pl/dlibra/dli ... anguage=en
Holocaust deniers have nothing of value to contribute to the record of history.

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Mon Aug 07, 2017 3:40 am

BSO, good to "see" you as always. We almost had a discussion of the Netherlands break out at ISF but Saggy preferred spamming links from Holohoax 101 to pursuing the issue. I thought of you and linked to one of your posts on Sobibór from here when it seemed we might have a discussion. Take care, SM
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Denying-History » Mon Aug 07, 2017 11:25 pm

Statistical Mechanic wrote:We almost had a discussion of the Netherlands break out at ISF but Saggy preferred spamming links from Holohoax 101 to pursuing the issue.

That's one of those denier websites that claims the large gas chamber inside the Majdanek bunker has a window in it.
« Lies written in ink cannot disguise facts written in blood. »
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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Mon Aug 07, 2017 11:28 pm

Denying-History wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote:We almost had a discussion of the Netherlands break out at ISF but Saggy preferred spamming links from Holohoax 101 to pursuing the issue.

That's one of those denier websites that claims the large gas chamber inside the Majdanek bunker has a window in it.

It is truly bottom of the barrel, old discredited nonsense, served up dumb.
. . . I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason—Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. - John Keats, 1817

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Re: The Lublin Ghetto

Postby Denying-History » Tue Aug 08, 2017 12:05 am

Statistical Mechanic wrote:
Denying-History wrote:
Statistical Mechanic wrote:We almost had a discussion of the Netherlands break out at ISF but Saggy preferred spamming links from Holohoax 101 to pursuing the issue.

That's one of those denier websites that claims the large gas chamber inside the Majdanek bunker has a window in it.

It is truly bottom of the barrel, old discredited nonsense, served up dumb.
Pretty much, nothing really to gain from it other then idiotic statements.
« Lies written in ink cannot disguise facts written in blood. »
- Lu Xun


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