Hungary, Anyone?

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Re: Hungary, Anyone?

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Thu Feb 08, 2018 11:00 pm

About a month after the deportations of Jews to Auschwitz from the provinces in Hungary had begun, Swedish ambassador to Hungary Carl Ivan Danielsson and his aide Per Anger sent a telegram to the Utrikesdepartementet (UD, or Foreign Ministry of Sweden) that said:
According to reliable intelligence from various sources, deportation and extermination [förintelse] of the Jews accelerating. In eastern and southern Hungary the largest portion of Jews already deported to extermination camp Kattovitz.

It was based on this intelligence that Danielsson and Anger requested, and received, authorization from the UD to provide "emergency passports . . . for people with connection to Sweden."

About two weeks prior to this, Danielsson had cabled the UD that Jews from Budapest would ultimately also be deported to Germany and Poland.

Note: Katowice lies about 25 miles north of Auschwitz. The word förintelse, as I've learned it, means "annihilation"; Förintelsen (the annihilation) is the Swedish word adopted for the Holocaust.

[Levine, pp 108-109]
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Re: Hungary, Anyone?

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Fri Feb 09, 2018 3:01 pm

On 16 June 1944, two days after sending the telegram mentioned above, Danielsson and Anger reported to the UD that already over 420,000 Hungarian Jews had been removed from the country and that

Image

Further, the two diplomats wrote, in Budapest "stubborn rumours say that large numbers of transports [are] directed to Poland, where the human cargoes are exterminated by means of gas."

Therefore, the Swedes began pressing the Hungarians and Germans to exempt Jews from deportation if they held Swedish papers based only on their intent to acquire Swedish citizenship. This approach sometimes worked, although not in large numbers and, at the time, it was already too late for almost all Hungarian Jews who'd lived outside Budapest.

[Levine, p 110]
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Re: Hungary, Anyone?

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Fri Feb 09, 2018 3:39 pm

Per Anger reported (Levine p 114) on the 30 June 1944 meeting at which Swedish King Gustav V's appeal to Horthy - protesting "the extraordinarily severe methods which your government is resorting to against Hungary's Jewish population" and requesting that Horthy act to "save those who remain" - that Horthy was "personable" but noncommittal. According to Anger, Horthy "regretted not having greater possibilities to hinder what was happening to Hungary's Jews" and told the diplomats that "the Germans stand behind all measures against the Jews." During this period, Danielsson and Anger had been reporting, in fact, frustration in that in their efforts to intervene on behalf of Jews with ties to Sweden, the Hungarian authorities routinely blamed the Germans, and the Germans routinely blamed the Hungarians (Levine p 110).

During the 30 June meeting, Horthy further explained the Hungarians' policy, however, according to Anger, as owing in part to the fact that Hungarian government officials "were anxious to transport Eastern Hungary's Jews away because of the communist elements." Horthy explained also that "the Jews have little in common with the Hungarian people."

It would be about a week later that, finally succumbing to international pressures and internal issues Horthy refused to allow the Jewish deportations to continue, notably in Budapest.
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Re: Hungary, Anyone?

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Sat Feb 10, 2018 12:16 am

In mid-July 1944, after Horthy had halted the deportations and whilst officials waited to see if there'd be a resumption, Swedish diplomats worked frantically to get Jews out of Hungary to safety in Sweden. Officials in the Swedish legation in Budapest were indeed able to reach agreement with Hungarian deputy foreign minister Arnóthy-Jungerth that 450 Jewish children, women, and elderly could be brought to Sweden from Hungary. The method proposed by the Swedes was to use a "collective passport."

Hitler had agreed, in principle, according to a telegram Ribbentrop sent to Veesenmayer on 10 July, that small groups of Jews under Swedish (and Swiss) protection could leave Hungary "on condition that the removal of the Jews to the Reich that was temporarily stopped by the Regent is now going to be immediately and as quickly as possible completed." In other words, Hitler would allow a few 100s of neutral-protected Jews out of Hungary only if the Hungarians allowed deportation of the remaining quarter of a million or more Jews from the country.

Thus, at the same time as the Swedish-Hungarian agreement was reached, in Berlin von Thadden was telling a Swedish diplomat there that neither the Germans nor the Swedes "were legally authorized" to make such a deal, "which was a domestic Hungarian matter," albeit one already agreed by Hungarian officials! In any event, von Thadden told the Swedish diplomat, according to the latter's report, that it would be "preferable to release a little Jewish haberdasher rather than the big business and industry Jews, who always showed themselves to be the most dangerous and most antisocial elements."

Eichmann chimed in, writing to Berlin from Budapest, "we will, for as long as possible, draw out the ongoing efforts for some Jews to emigrate so that after the evacuations resume, all possibilities for emigration are choked off." Eichmann was not as sensitive to diplomatic needs in dealings with neutral countries and allies. He was to leave Budapest shortly after this, frustrated that Horthy hadn't rescinded his halt decision.

Levine writes, citing Lozowick, who details German negotiating methods in his book on Eichmann's office, that Eichmann's tactics were SOP and that the Germans, despite dangling bait now and then, "had no intention of letting these Jews depart" and remained committed to "killing those Jews currently under neutral protection."

[Levine pp 193-197]
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Re: Hungary, Anyone?

Postby Statistical Mechanic » Thu May 31, 2018 8:24 pm

Sergey Romanov is not impressed with Il Re di Convoluzione's junior partner, even though (I've been assured) Il Re's books are in all the best libraries.
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